Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Wind River, Washington"
Includes ... Wind River ... Carson Mineral Hot Springs ... Senator Al Henry Bridge ... Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge ... "New Timber River" ... "Cruzatts River" ... "Cruzats River" ... Southern Pacific #4449 ... National Register of Historic Places ...
Image, 2003, Mouth of the Wind River, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River, Washington, looking towards mouth. From the Wind River boat dock looking towards the mouth, at the railroad bridge across the Wind River. Washington State Highway 14 is just this side of the railroad and barely visible in this image. Hills in the distance are the Oregon banks of the Columbia. Image taken October 25, 2003.


Wind River ...
The Wind River is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 154.5, entering the Columbia within the Bonneville Reservoir, the pool behind Bonneville Dam. On Wind River's upstream bank is Wind Mountain and the Washington community of Home Valley. Downstream of Wind River is the head of the Bonneville Landslide with Table Mountain and Greenleaf Peak.

Wind River Drainage ...
According to the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website (2004), the Wind River basin is oriented northwest to southeast with elevations ranging from 80 feet to 3,900 feet. The mainstem of the Wind River originates in McClellan Meadows, drains 225 square miles, and has a length of approximately 31 miles. The largest tributary to Wind River is Panther Creek which enters at RM 4.3 and drains 18% of the Wind River subbasin (26,466 acres). A fish ladder was built in 1956 around Shipherd Falls, located at RM 2.0. Shipherd Falls is a series of four falls ranging from 8 to 12 feet. The lava around Wind River consists of a series of lava flows more than 35,000-years-old, which came down the Wind River canyon as intracanyon flows, entered the Columbia River on a 1-mile-wide front, and dammed the river. The dam lasted long enough for the Wind River to build a delta 150 feet thick and 1 mile long into a temporary lake.

Image, 2003, Wind River, Washington, from near Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River, Washington, as seen from near Carson, Washington. Looking down on the Wind River, from the road to Carson, Washington. Image taken October 25, 2003.


Lewis and Clark and the Wind River ...
Lewis and Clark passed by the Wind River on October 30, 1805. They first named the river "New Timber River" but later changed the name to "Cruzatts River" after one of the expedition members, Pierre Cruzatte. Variations Clark used of the name include "Cruzats River", "Cruzatts River", and "River Cruzatt".

"... The bottoms above the mouth of this little river <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. ..." [Clark, October 30, 1805]

Views of Wind River ...

Image, 2006, Wind River Railroad Bridge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Burlington Northern Sante Fe Railroad Bridge crossing Wind River. View is from Washington State 14 at the upstream side, looking towards the mouth of Wind River. Image taken September 16, 2006.
Image, 2003, Looking upstream from mouth of the Wind River, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River, Washington, looking upstream from mouth. From the Wind River boat dock looking upstream. Image taken October 25, 2003.


Wind River, etc.

  • Carson ...
  • Carson Hot Springs ...
  • Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge ...
  • Senator Al Henry Bridge ...
  • SP#4449 Excursion Train ...
  • Wind River Tribal "In-lieu" Fishing Access Site, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission ...
  • Wind Mountain ...


Carson ...
[More]


Carson Hot Springs ...
[More]

Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Carson Mineral Hot Springs Golf and Spa Resort, Carson, Washington. Image taken February 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Hotel St. Martin, Carson Hot Springs Resort, Carson, Washington. Hotel St. Martin was built in 1901. The bathhouse is the building on the right. Image taken February 15, 2013.


Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge ...
Locally known as the "High Bridge", the Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge crosses the Wind River north of the community of Carson. The deck truss bridge was built in 1957, was designed by the C.M. Corkum Company, and is 598.1 feet long and 25.9 feet wide. The bridge sits 260 feet above the surface of the water surface. Conrad Lundy was the County Commissioner at the time of the bridge's construction.

The "High Bridge" is the 4th bridge to span the Wind River canyon north of Carson. The first bridge was built in 1890 and lasted two years. Next came a one-lane suspension bridge built in 1913. The 1913 bridge was then replaced by a steel wire cable suspension bridge in 1925 which was in use until it was bypassed by the current bridge. The 1925 bridge was subsequently removed. In 2002 the Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Architecture/Engineering, #02000326).

[More]


Image, 2013, Wind River from High Bridge, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River from "High Bridge", Carson, Washington. View from moving car. The Conrad Lundy Jr. Bridge sits 260 feet above the Wind River. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Image taken February 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wind River from High Bridge, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River downstream, from "High Bridge", Carson, Washington. Image taken February 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wind River from High Bridge, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind River, upstream, from "High Bridge", Carson, Washington. Note shadow of bridge structure. Image taken February 15, 2013.


Senator Al Henry Bridge ...
In 1987, the Washington State Highway 14 bridge at the mouth of the Wind River was named the Senator Al Henry Bridge.

Image, 2006, Wind River Railroad Bridge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Looking upstream Wind River from the Senator Al Henry Bridge, Washington State Highway 14. Image taken September 16, 2006.


SP #4449 Excursion Train at Wind River, September 2006 ...
On the weekend of September 16 and 17, 2006, the Northwest Rail Museum sponsored a round-trip excursion train from Portland, Oregon, to Bend, Oregon, via the Washington side of the Columbia River Gorge, turning south on the Oregon Trunk Line, and then up the Deschutes Canyon. The engine pulling this train was the historic steam engine, the Southern Pacific #4449.
[More]

Image, 2006, SP4449 Steam Engine, Wind River Bridge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
SP #4449 Steam Engine, at Wind River, Washington, Columbia Gorge. Image taken September 16, 2006.


Wind River Tribal "In-lieu" Fishing Access Site, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission ...
All four Columbia River treaty tribes enjoy fishing rights along the Columbia from the Bonneville to McNary dams. This 147-mile stretch of the river is called Zone 6. The Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) operates and maintains 31 fishing sites (2015, Note: the website map only shows 30 sites) in Zone 6. These sites were set aside by Congress to provide fishing locations to Indian fishers whose traditional fishing grounds were inundated behind dams.

"For fisheries management purposes, the 292-mile stretch of the Columbia River that creates the border between Washington and Oregon is divided into six zones. Zones 1-5 are between the mouth of the river and Bonneville Dam, a distance of 145 miles. Oregon and Washington manage the commercial fisheries that occur in these zones. Zone 6 is an exclusive treaty Indian commercial fishing area. This exclusion is for commercial fishing only. Non-commercial sports fishers may still fish in this stretch of the river." [Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission website, 2016]

The Zone 6 sites include 19 Treaty Fishing Access sites (Bonneville, Wyeth, White Salmon, Stanley Rock, Lyle, Dallesport, Celilo, Maryhill, Rufus, Preacher's Eddy, North Shore, LePage Park, Pasture Point, Roosevelt Park, Pine Creek, Threemile Canyon, Alderdale, Crow Butte, and Faler Road), five "In-lieu" sites (Cascade Locks, Wind River, Cooks, Underwood, and Lone Pine), two "Shared-use" sites (Avery and Sundale Park, for both Tribal use and Public use), and four "Unimproved" sites with no services (Goodnoe, Rock Creek, Moonay, and Aldercreek).



Wind Mountain ...
Wind Mountain, a 35,000-year-old, 1,903-foot-high volcanic intrusion, rises over the upstream side of Wind River, where the river merges with the Columbia River.
[More]

Image, 2003, Wind River, Washington, looking towards Wind Mountain, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
At the mouth of Wind River looking towards Wind Mountain. Image taken October 25, 2003.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]     passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,

[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream - Starvation Creek and Falls, the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls, Warren Creek and Falls, Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls, Lindsey Creek and Falls, and Summit Creek and Falls.]

a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]

[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]

are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],     the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...   :  here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round> Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, ...     The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood> which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on> near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.     I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...     I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark ...     a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped [near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.] is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye






Clark, April 13, 1806 ...
The loss of one of our large Canoes rendered it necessary to divide the loading and men of that Canoe between the remaining four, which was done and we loaded and Set out at 8 oClock A. M. [from their camp near Ashes Lake]     passed the village imediately above the rapids where only one house remains entire the other 8 haveing been taken down and moved to the opposit Side of the Columbia [downstream of Rock Creek and Stevenson, Washington] ...     Capt. Lewis with 2 of the Smallest Canoes of Sergt. Pryor & gibson and Crossed above the Rapids [Cascade Rapids] to the Village on the S E Side [east of Cascade Locks] with a view to purchase a Canoe of the nativs if possible. ...     I with the two large Canoes proceeded on up the N. W. Side with the intention of gitting to the Encampment of our hunters who was derected to hunt in the bottom above Crusats River [Wind River], and there wait the arrival of Capt. Lewis. I proceeded on to the bottom in which I expected to find the hunters but Could See nothing of them. the wind rose and raised the wavs to Such a hight that I could not proceed any further. we landed and I sent out Shields and Colter to hunt; Shields Shot two deer but Could get neither of them. I walkd. to Crusats river [Wind River] and up it a mile on my return to the party found that the wind had lulled and as we Could See nothing of our hunters. I deturmined to proceed on to the next bottom where I thought it probable they had halted at passed 2 P M Set out and proceeded on to the bottom 6 miles and halted at the next bottom formed a Camp and Sent out all the hunters [near Dog Mountain, between Collins Creek and Dog Creek].     I also walked out my self on the hills but saw nothing. on my return found Capt. Lewis at Camp with two canoes which he had purchased at the Y-ep-huh ...

I was convinced that the hunters must have been up River Cruzatt [Wind River]. despatched Sergt. Pryor with 2 men in a Canoe, with directions to assend Crusats River [Wind River] and if he found the hunters to assist them in with the meat. Jo: Shields returned about Sunset with two deer which he had killed, those were of the Black tail fallow Deer. <the> there appears to be no other Species of Deer in those mountains. We proceeded on 12 miles.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    "bridgehunter.com" website, 2013;    "bridgemeister.com" website, 2013;    Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website, 2004;    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission website, 2016;    Tolan, T.L., Beeson, M.H., and Vogt, B.F., 1984, Exploring the Neogene History of the Columbia River: Discussion and Geologic Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon Geology, Vol.46, No.8, August 1984, and Vol.46, No.9, September 1984, Published by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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January 2016