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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Vancouver Barracks, Washington"
Includes ... Vancouver Barracks ... "Camp Vancouver" ... "Columbia Barracks" ... "Fort Vancouver" ... "Department of the Columbia" ... Post Cemetery ... Spruce Mill ... Vancouver National Historic Reserve ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2015, Fort Vancouver National Site, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver National Site sign, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.


"Vancouver Barracks" ...
Vancouver Barracks is an American Military Post which currently (2004) is home to the 104th and 396th divisions of the U.S. Army Reserve. It is located just north of the Fort Vancouver and south and west of Vancouver's historic Officer's Row.

This first American military post in the Pacific Northwest was established in May 1849 in response to killings of Marcus and Narcissa Whitman in 1847.

"... After Indians killed Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and fourteen others at the Whitman Waiilatpu station in November of 1847, the federal government promised to send troops to Oregon for the protection of settlers. It was not until 1849, however, that federal troops arrived in Oregon: two companies of artillery, the L and M First Artillery, arrived at Astoria on May 9, under the command of Brevet Major J.S. Hathaway via the U.S.S. Massachusetts, under orders to establish a post at the mouth of the Willamette River. In September and October, a rifle regiment dispatched overland from Fort Leavenworth under the command of Brevet-Colonel W.W. Loring straggled into Camp Vancouver, where Hathaway had established camp on the hill behind the Fort Vancouver stockade. The U.S. Army and the Hudson's Bay Company were to exist side by side in amity for a few years. However, the rapid increase in population, due principally to immigration from the states, the establishment of American government and laws, and the establishment of American social institutions greatly altered the political, economic and social climate by the end of this period: by 1860 the Hudson's Bay Company was considered an interloper with no practical claim to the vast holdings it had controlled for decades. At the end of this period, under increasing strained relations between the U.S. Army and the Company's employees at Fort Vancouver, the Hudson's Bay Company vacated the post. ..." [U.S. National Park Service, Fort Vancouver website, Fort Vancouver Cultural Landscape Report, 2005]

Vancouver Barracks was first known as "Camp Vancouver". In 1850 "Camp Vancouver" became "Columbia Barracks" and in 1853 it became "Fort Vancouver". On April 17, 1879 the Post was renamed "Vancouver Barracks", the name it retains today.


Vancouver Barracks History ...
In 1846 the Great Britain/United States boundary was agreed to at the 49th parallel, but left the Straits of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Columbia River as freely accessible to both nations. As a result, in 1849. the Hudson Bay Company moved its headquarters from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria, now the location of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

In 1860 the British abandoned Fort Vancouver for good, leaving the area to the American "Vancouver Barracks". Vancouver Barracks became the headquarters of the "Department of the Columbia", which covered present-day Washington State, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska.

In 1974 Officers Row and the Fort Vancouver Barracks were listed on the National Register of Historic Places (District - #74001948).

Today (2004) portions of Vancouver Barracks are home to the 104th and 396th divisions of the U.S. Army Reserve.


Penny Postcard, Vancouver Barracks, ca.1920
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Penny Postcard: Vancouver Barracks, Vancouver, Washington, ca.1920. Penny Postcard, ca.1920, "The Vancouver Barracks, Vancovuer, Washington.". Published by Wesley Andrews Co., Portland, Oregon. Card #552. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2015, Vancouver Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.


Vancouver National Historic Reserve ...
The 366-acre Vancouver National Historic Reserve is located in Vancouver, Washington, and was established in October 1996. It includes not only Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, but also adjacent historical areas, as Vancouver Barracks, Officer's Row, and Pearson Field. Lewis and Clark passed through this area on November 4, 1805, on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. Captain Clark walked upon the "Small Prarie", later known as "Jolie Prairie". On their return, their campsite of March 30, 1806 was on the "beautifull prarie".
[More]

Image, 2004, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver, Washington. Looking towards Vancouver Barracks. Image taken March 7, 2004.


More ...


Vancouver Barracks, etc.

  • Artillery Barracks ...
  • NCO Quarters ...
  • Parade Grounds ...
  • Parade Grounds, October 2006 ...
  • Polo Grounds ...
  • Post Cemetery ...
  • Red Cross Convalescent House ...
  • Spruce Mill ...
  • Vancouver Barracks, July 2005 ...


"Artillery Barracks" ...
"At the beginning of the 20th century, Vancouver was the headquarters for the Department of the Columbia, a vast administrative unit in the Northwest. The population of the post almost tripled in response to increased military activity both at home and abroad. There were not enough barracks for soldiers stationed here, and men were sleeping in tents. An ambitious building scheme was begun that would enable the post to garrison a regiment of infantry and two batteries of artillery. The double artillery barracks was constructed during that period, erected on this site in 1904.

The Colonial Revival style building housed two separate companies, a total capacity of 240 men. The latrines, storage rooms, and other functional spaces were located in the basement. The kitchen, mess halls, and day rooms were on the first floor. The second floor had large, dormitory style sleeping quarters for the soldiers, with smaller, semi-private rooms for the officers. At one point, the attic housed an indoor shooting range."


Source:    Information sign outside the Artillery Barracks, visited May 2015.


Image, 2015, Vancouver Artillery Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "Artillery Barracks", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.
Image, 2015, Vancouver Artillery Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "Artillery Barracks", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.
Image, 2015, Vancouver Artillery Barracks, click to enlarge
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SIgn, Vancouver Barracks, "Artillery Barracks", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.


"NCO Quarters" ...
NCO Quarters, built in 1939.

Image, 2015, Vancouver Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "NCO Quarters", Vancouver, Washington. Built 1939. Image taken May 31, 2015.


Parade Grounds ...
The Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds are located on the north and east side of the post. Officer's Row borders the north side of the Parade Grounds.

"On May 13, 1849, from the deck of the USS Massachusetts, the first U.S. Army troups in the Pacific Northwest spotted the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver. 'Mr. Douglas, the resident Governor received us very politely and Major Hatheway [U.S. Army] determined to encamp near Vancouver ...' wrote an arriving soldier. The troups soon established themselves on high ground above the fort, beginning their assignment of keeping peace and providing support to Oregon Trail emigrants.

For over 150 years, the U.S. Army trained, drilled, marched off to war, and recuperated at Vancouver Barracks. From the 1850s to the 1870s, troops were dispatched to fight the Indian Wars. In the following decades, they saw action in the Philippines, curbed labor riots in Tacoma, and attempted to keep order during the Alaska Gold Rush and strikes at Idaho mines.

Beginning in the 1800s, this parade ground became a gathering place for members of budding communities as well. 'The regular dress parades at the barracks continue to attract large crowds ever evening. Every [street] car and steamer in the afternoon is crowded with visitors from Portland' wrote a reporter in The Oregonian newspaper in 1899.

By World War I, as troops, spruce lumber for aircraft, mules, and supplies were shipped out to support the war effort, Fort Lewis, near Olympia, WA, was under construction. Although Fort Lewis soon overshadowed Vancouver Barracks in military importance, this post remains home to the U.S. Army Reserve 104th and 396th Divisions, and the Washington National Guard, continuing the rich tradition of military service."


Source:    Information sign outside the Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, visited August 2006.


Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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Sign, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds. Looking across the Parade Grounds from Officer's Row. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Gazebo, Vancouver Barracks Parade Ground, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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View of Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds from the Gazebo. Looking south towards Jolie Prairie and the Columbia River. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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View of Vancouver Barracks and Parade Grounds from the Gazebo. Image taken August 27, 2006.


Parade Grounds, October 2006 ...

Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver Parade Grounds, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fall colors, Fort Vancouver Parade Grounds, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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Fall colors, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds. Looking across the Parade Grounds from Pearson Field. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2006, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds, click to enlarge
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Fall colors, Vancouver Barracks Parade Grounds. Looking across the Parade Grounds from Pearson Field. Image taken October 23, 2006.


Polo Grounds ...
Vancouver Barrack's "polo grounds" were located south of the Army post, south of today's E.5th Street, in the area of today's Pearson Field. In the early 1900s this wide-open area became a place for early aviation enthusiasts to gather. In 1905, Lincoln Beachey landed the airship "City of Portland" (using the gas bag of the airship "Gelatine") in the field after taking off from the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland. In 1911 the first airplane flight took off from the field. In 1917 the field became the site of the Army's Spruce Cut-Up Mill, producing aviation-grade lumber for manufacturing war planes. Then, in the early 1920s after the Spruce Mill was demolished, the "polo grounds" once again became an air field.

According to the National Park Service (2017):

"In the early 1920s, the Spruce Mill was demolished, and the field once again became an air field, first known as the "Vancouver Barracks Aerodrome," and christened "Pearson Air Field," after Lt. Alexander Pearson, in 1925."

Image, 2017, View east from Fort Vancouver, click to enlarge
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Polo Grounds and Spruce Mill location, view looking east from Fort Vancouver, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken April 21, 2017.

View from the location of the 1918 Spruce Mill's sawdust burner.


Post Cemetery ...
[More]

Image, 2016, Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery sign, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2016.
Image, 2016, Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2016.
Image, 2016, Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2016.
Image, 2016, Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2016.


"Red Cross Convalescent House" ...
"Following the nation's entry into World War I, the American Red Cross was authorized to construct convalescent houses adjacent to military hospitals. These facilities provided recreation away from a hospital atmosphere, and helped boost the morale of recuperating patients. The Red Cross provided writing supplies, books, games, movies, and other diversions, and offered hospitality to visiting family members.

The construction of this building, a unique adaption to standard plans, was completed in only four months due to the efforts of local trade unions and widespread community support.

The convalescent house at Vancouver Barracks was dedicated in February of 1919, and for a time continued its role in patient care. It was furnished with locally-made wicker furniture and the flags of World War I allies.

The last hostess for the convalescent house was E.B. Hamilton, after whom the main hall is now named. As the activities of the Red Cross diminished, the building was transferred to the Army and became a Non-Commissioned Officers' Club offering a variety of recreational activities, including movies, parties, and dances."


Source:    Information sign outside the Red Cross Convalescent House, visited May 2015.


Image, 2015, Vancouver Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "Red Cross Convalescent House", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.
Image, 2015, Vancouver Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "Red Cross Convalescent House", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.
Image, 2015, Vancouver Barracks, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, "Red Cross Convalescent House", Vancouver, Washington. Image taken May 31, 2015.


Spruce Mill ...
[More]

"In November of 1917 the United States announced the formation of the Spruce Production Division, part of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, at Vancouver Barracks, with headquarters in Portland, Oregon. It was a home front activity designed to supply high quality spruce wood for the production of allied combat airplanes, utilizing the Pacific Northwest's large and accessible stands of old growth Sitka spruce. ...

At that time, Vancouver Barracks was to serve as a training center for soldiers enroute to the forests of the Pacific Northwest, and to that end, infantry regiments stationed at the post were removed to make room for the thousands of "spruce" soldiers. ... However, early in 1918, the Barracks also became the site of the Cut-up Plant, the principal spruce mill of the Division, built and operated by spruce soldiers. ... Ultimately, there were six districts and sub-districts of the Division, located in Oregon and Washington, and many dozens of soldier camps, most of which were near lumber company camps, logging or building the miles of railroads necessary to reach remote stands of the premium Sitka spruce.

The mill and its associated structures at Vancouver Barracks eventually covered fifty acres south of old Upper Mill Road, including the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver site. Operations began on February 7, 1918; it had taken forty-five working days from ground-breaking to opening ceremonies. ...

The impact of the mill and the thousands of spruce soldiers that descended upon Vancouver Barracks was significant: a cantonment was built north of Officers' Row to house soldiers, and, as the mill geared up into production, tents and support buildings were erected around the mill on the historic lower plain to house and care for the spruce soldiers. ... by July of 1918, there were 2,400 troops housed at the mill site. ...

When the armistice was signed in November of 1918, the Cut-up Plant had been in production for less than a year. Operations in the woods ceased on November 12, and all contracts with private mills were cancelled. Any timber already felled, or cants already manufactured was shipped to Vancouver. ... Demobilization of the spruce soldiers began on December 3. When the war ended, the Cut-up mill at Vancouver Barracks had over four million feet of select airplane stock ready for shipment, and a portion of between twenty-five and thirty million feet of the commercially-suitable by-product ready for delivery. Eight hundred soldiers were kept at Vancouver Barracks to inventory and store the materials and equipment at the plant and those being shipped to the plant from the forests. The Division formed a Sales Board to market all major equipment and materials through sealed bid. ...


"In 1917-18, construction of the spruce mill and its related structures had an enormous impact on the area south of old Upper Mill Road (today East Fifth Street), but very little effect on the garrison area between Officers' Row and old Upper Mill Road. Despite the need to house, feed and service thousand of "spruce soldiers" at the site, construction activity in the heart of Vancouver Barracks during this period was limited, no doubt due to the haste with which the program was put into effect and to the recognition of its temporary nature. Instead, a cantonment, erected in 1917 by Grant, Smith and Company of Chicago, which featured tent cabins and temporary structures, was built a mile north of the site, above Officers' Row, to house a regiment of engineers recruited at Vancouver, and the Vancouver District's military headquarters were located there; when the size of the Division was upped, hundreds of tents were erected on the site of the mill below old Upper Mill Road, and a variety of support buildings, including offices, mess halls, and latrines, were erected around the mill to service them."


"The former Hudson's Bay Company fields and pastures south of old Upper Mill Road were greatly affected by construction of the spruce mill on the site. The only logical location for the mill at Vancouver Barracks was on lower Fort Plain, which was already served by the S P& S railroad spur, and only had a few structures located along the spur towards the west end: the polo grounds were sacrificed to the war effort. By December 20, construction of the Cut-up Plant was underway, supervised by an Oregon mill owner, H.S. Mitchell, whose mill on the Columbia at Wauna, Oregon, was considered a model sawmill. Local mills supplied construction materials, and machinery was shipped in at great expense, and with haste, from all over the country. By January 7 the local newspaper was reporting that the mill was "...growing so rapidly and in such large proportions that the landscape is changed almost every twenty-four hours." At that time four of the mill's six units were "well along;" the frame for the fifth was in place, and the foundation was being poured for the sixth.

Operations at the mill began on February 7, 1918, complete with opening ceremonies featuring local politicians and army officials. It had been forty-five working days from the time ground was broken at the plant. It was a huge building, 358 by 288 feet; each of the six units contained two circular saw rigs, two table edgers, two re-saws and eight trim saws. The plant turned out between four and six hundred thousand feet every twenty-four hours, processing four to six inch flitches or cants shipped there from the region's forests: the milled lumber was then shipped to aircraft production plants out of state. At its peak, the mills saw between thirty-five and forty railroad cars of rived cants and sawn timber arrive daily. About seventy percent of the timber processed at the plant ended up as useful for aircraft; the remainder was used for smaller airplane parts, or was sold for commercial use.

The Spruce Division also extended a series of railroad spurs across the site to service the mill and kilns. Before the mill was completed, the Spruce Division approved the construction of a battery of drying kilns--the kilns covered an 100 by 350 foot area, and the drying sheds were 300 by 350 feet in size--on the site to season the cants, built within a two-month period. Those parts of the fifty acre site not covered by the mill, the kilns, timber sheds, and the thousands of tents and dozens of support buildings housing spruce soldiers, were devoted to storage of milled lumber and timber awaiting processing. Major facilities built on top of the Hudson's Bay Company stockade site included a planing mill, part of a loading platform, and several railroad spurs. A second major railroad spur (Spur B), was installed, beginning at the west edge of the original spur's curve, and crossing the site from west to east, dividing into additional spurs at various sheds and buildings. The original spur (Spur A), divided into seven lines, four of which ran parallel to old Upper Mill Road, across the north edge of the site.

At the end of the war, after less than a year of operation, the mill was closed, and acres of both processed and raw materials were auctioned. Later, the remaining equipment and real property was sold. The cantonment north of Officers' Row remained standing, and was later used for Civilian Military Training camps. The Cut-up plant and its related structures stood on the site until 1925, when it was disassembled. In the 1920s, four of the Spruce Mill buildings were moved further east, to house reserve air squadron and other army air services that began after the war.


"In 1917, a cantonment of tent cabins north of Officers' Row was built to house units of the Spruce Division. West of the cantonment, just north of Officers' Row, the Victory Theater was built in 1918, which, during World War II, served as a recreation building. An athletic field north of Officers' Row was upgraded and used by the spruce soldiers: it was later named Koehler Field."





Source:    Fort Vancouver Cultural Landscape Report, 1992, U.S. National Park Service.


Vancouver Barracks, July 2005 ...
U.S. Army, Vancouver Barracks, established 1849, 396th Combat Support Hospital, U.S. Army Reserve, Col. D. Meaves, CSM S.L. Miller.

Image, 2005, Vancouver Barracks, Washington, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2005.
Image, 2005, Vancouver Barracks, Washington, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Barracks, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2005.
Image, 2005, Vancouver Barracks, Washington, click to enlarge
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Building, Vancouver Barracks, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2005.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards". The "Penny Postcard" became a popular way to send greetings to friends and family. Today the "Penny Postcard" has become an image of history.

Penny Postcard, Mount Hood from Vancouver Barracks, ca.1909
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Penny Postcard: Mount Hood, Oregon, from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, ca.1909. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1909. Caption on top reads: "Mount Hood from Vancouver Barracks, Vancouver, Wash.". Published by Portland Post Card Company, Portland, Oregon. Card #1010. Divided back, card is postmarked July 1, 1909. This area was known as "Jolie Prairie", today the location of Fort Vancouver, Vancouver Barracks, Pearson Airfield, and Vancouver industry and condominiums. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Vancouver Barracks, ca.1920
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Vancouver Barracks, Vancouver, Washington, ca.1920. Penny Postcard, ca.1920, "The Vancouver Barracks, Vancovuer, Washington.". Published by Wesley Andrews Co., Portland, Oregon. Card #552. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 4, 1805 ...
A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock [from their camp on the north side of Government Island, approximately across from Fisher's Landing], one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island [Government Island] to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered     (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this diamond Island [Government Island] is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel [Lewis and Clark show two large islands on their maps, both in today's Government Island area], and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands [even today the Government Island reach is a complex of many islands] as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; [since 1983 the Interstate 205 bridge crosses Government Island connecting Oregon to Washington]     on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: [near Portland International Airport]; ...     This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation ...

at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island [Hayden Island] nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie [Jolie Prairie, today the location of Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark. Lewis and Clark camp on this prairie on their return] in which there is a pond [one of the many ponds which use to dot this area] opposit on the Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, ...     joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. ...

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with [Tomahawk pipe, thus giving rise to the name Tomahawk Island] ...    we proceeded on

[The men have passed through the area which, 20 years later, Dr. John McLoughlin would choose for a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, later to become Fort Vancouver and eventually the city of Vancouver, Washington.]

met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of <man &> a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the <bow & Stern> of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man [Lewis and Clark then named Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island"]     two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island [Hayden Island] which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island [the location of Vancouver Landing and since 1917 the Interstate 5 Bridge connecting Oregon to Washington State], three Small Islands at its lower point [The downstream end of Hayden Island was at one time composed of small islands. One of these, Pearcy Island, would become today's Kelley Point.]. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd. Side [it wasn't until Lewis and Clark's return trip they would discover the mouth of the Willamette River] as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower [Sauvie Island is located at this stretch, but it is not until the return that Lewis and Clark recognize it as a separate island], and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river [Sandy River] passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side [on Sauvie Island], near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien [Mount St. Helens, Washington] which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25 E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid [Umatilla Rapids, Captain Clark actually saw Mount Adams] on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe- about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side [Post Office Lake vicinity, today within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side ...

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side [Portland's West Hills'] which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1 miles wide, and current jentle. opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island [one of the small sandy islands prevelent in this stretch of the Columbia. Today the Willow Bar Islands on the east side of Sauvie Island lie across from Post Office Lake.] the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Alley, B.F., and Munro-Fraser, J.P., 1885, History of Clarke County, Washington Territory: compiled from the most authentic sources: also biographical sketches of its pioneers and prominent citizens, Portland, Oregon;    City of Vancouver website, 2004;    National Register of Historic Places website, 2005, 2011;    U.S. National Park Service website, 2004, 2006, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site;    Washington State's Secretary of State website, 2007;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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April 2017