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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Troutdale, Oregon"
Includes ... Troutdale ... Sandy ... Centennial Arch ... Harlow Creek ... Harlow House ... National Register of Historic Places ... Robin's Way ... Depot Rail Museum ... Union Pacific Railroad ... Oregon Trail ...
Image, 2010, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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"Centennial Arch, Gateway to the Gorge", Troutdale, Oregon. Looking east, with Broughton Bluff in the background. Image taken July 17, 2010.

The "Centennial Arch" was dedicated in 2010 and celebrates the 100th birthday of Troutdale. It spans Main Street on the western end of Troutdale.


Troutdale ...
Troutdale, Oregon, is located along the Sandy River at River Mile (RM) 3. To the north of Troutdale is the mouth of the Sandy River at Columbia River Mile (RM) 120. Chinook Landing, lies slightly north and downstream while the Sandy River Delta lies north and upstream. Broughton Bluff looms behind Troutdale to the east. Troutdale can be reached from Interstate 84. The City is known as the "Gateway to the Gorge". Troutdale is often considered the start of the Historic Columbia River Highway.

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Closeup, Centennial Arch, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken from moving car. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Sandy River, Beaver Creek, and Harlow Creek ...
The City of Troutdale is located on the west side of the Sandy River at approximately Sandy River Mile (RM) 3, at a location where Beaver Creek tributary merges with the Sandy. Harlow Creek meets Beaver Creek just up from the Sandy River/Beaver Creek junction. The source of Harlow Creek is the trout ponds after which Troutdale was named.

Image, 2011, Sandy River, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Sandy River as seen from near Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. View from the approximate location of where Beaver Creek enters the Sandy. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Lewis and Clark and Troutdale ...
When men of the Lewis and Clark expedition explored six miles up the Sandy River on April 1, 1806, they passed the location of what would become the eastern edge of the Oregon community of Troutdale.

"... This morning early we dispatched Sergt. Pryar with two men in a small canoe up quicksand river with orders to proceed as far as he could and return this evening. ...    Sergt. Pryar returned in the evening and reported that he had ascended the river six miles; ..." [Lewis, April 1, 1806]

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Poster, 2004-2006 Lewis and Clark Exhibit, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 20, 2011.


Early Troutdale ...
The Troutdale community was first called Sandy, a name now used for a community located 22 miles upstream on the Sandy River. A Sandy Post Office existed at the location of today's Troutdale between 1854 and 1868.

The earliest settlers to the area of today's Troutdale arrived in 1850 and 1851, with early donation land claims filed by David F. Buxton (1865, 1873), Felix G. Hicklin (1865), James M. Stott (1866), John Douglass (1881), and Benjamin Hall (1881).

According to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records database (2011), David F. Buxton was granted title to 16.3 acres of T1N R3E Section 25, on November 20, 1865 (1820 Sale-Cash Entry). David F. Buxton and Fanny Buxton were granted title to 320.21 acres of T1N R3E Sections 25 and 26 on May 5, 1873 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).

According to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records database (2011), Felix G. Hicklin was granted title to 25.75 acres of T1N R3E Section 25, on November 20, 1865 (1820 Sale-Cash Entry).

In 1872 Captain John Harlow, an Oregon pioneer from Maine, purchased part of Buxton's land claim to build his country home. He stocked the ponds in the dale at the base of the bluff behind his home with trout and called his farm "Troutdale".

Harlow briefly established the Troutdale Post Office in 1880, although it didn't last long. When the railroad arrived Harlow requested the station be named "Troutdale". On November 20, 1882, Troutdale had a rail line and the town prospered.

In 1907 Troutdale was incorporated, with Aaron Fox becoming its first mayor.


Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Oregon History sign, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Troutdale and the Oregon Trail ...
Leaving The Dalles, Oregon Trail emigrants who chose the "river route" built rafts to float women, children, wagons, and goods down the Columbia River, while the men and boys drove the livestock along the banks. At the Hood River the cattle crossed to the north bank of the Columbia and at the Sandy River the cattle were driven back across the Columbia to the south side. While many rafts floated all the way to Fort Vancouver, others would unload at the mouth of the Sandy River to wait for the men and cattle. Wagons were reassembled and then went south, climbing the hills and heading towards Oregon City. The Oregon community of Troutdale was settled during this period, not only by Oregon Trail pioneers arriving via the Columbia, but also from pioneers arriving in Portland and heading east towards the banks of the Sandy. In 1863 Joel Palmer established a toll cattle trail on the south side of the Columbia River and established ferries across the Hood River and the Sandy River. In 1872 the Oregon legislature first appropriated funds for building a wagon road from The Dalles to Troutdale, and in 1876 they provided more. In 1883 the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company built a railroad along the same route, destroying the wagon road in many places. By 1925 the Columbia River Highway was finished, giving early 20th century "pioneers" easy access to the Willamette Valley.

"Oregon Trail emigrants arrived at the Sandy River after descending the Columbia or traveling its rugged banks with lifestock. Emigrants camped along the banks of the Sandy River reassembling wagons and recuperating. Crossing the Sandy downstream from this site, and climbing the hill behind the Harlow House, where the trail is still visible, emigrants could look behind at the bluffs that today mark the western entrance of the Columbia Gorge. For emigrants, however, these bluffs marked the eastern gateway to the Willamette Valley. ..."

Source:    Information sign at the Harlow House Museum, Troutdale, Oregon, visited in 2011.

Troutdale in 1940 ...
From the Oregon State Archives "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon":

"... TROUTDALE, 177.7 m. (50 alt., 227 pop.), is a trade center for a fruit and vegetable producing area specializing in celery growing. Between truck gardens and dairy farms, US 30 crosses the bottom lands of the widening Columbia Valley to FAIRVIEW, 180.3 m. (114 alt., 266 pop.), and past orchards, bulb farms, and suburban homes to PARKROSE 185.2 m. ..."


Street Scenes ...

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Troutdale, Oregon. Looking east, with Broughton Bluff in the background. Day overcast and gray. Image taken from moving car. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2008, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Troutdale, Oregon. Looking east, with Broughton Bluff in the background. Image taken from moving car. Image taken July 27, 2008.

NOTE: in September 2011, "Lyn's Cafe" was no longer in business.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken from moving car. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2008, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken from moving car. Image taken July 27, 2008.


Troutdale, etc.

  • Centennial Arch ...
  • Depot Rail Museum ...
  • Fred Harlow House and Harlow Park ...
  • Robins Way ...
  • Smelt Fishery ...
  • Troutdale Ferry ...

Centennial Arch ...
Originally the Troutdale Centennial Arch was planned to celebrate Troutdale's 100th anniversary in 2007, however budgets kept the Arch from becoming a reality. I took until 2010 before the Arch rose above the main street of Troutdale. On March 16, 2010 the Arch was place in position.

The Centennial Arch was designed by sculptor Rip Caswell who initially conceived the arch concept and sculpted the two seven-foot-long bronze trout adorning the side supports. The Arch rises 22 feet above the road surface and stretches 68 feet from side to side. It was built in three sections, weighs 12,000 pounds, and can withstand winds up to 110 miles per hour and bear three inches of ice. The two columns are built on supports embedded 25 feet into the native Troutdale Formation soils and grouted in place. The columns are decorated with Columbia River Basalt, the same type of rock used in the construction of the Historic Columbia River Scenic Highway. A time capsule filled with material provided by the Troutdale Historical Society was sealed in the south column of the Arch, to be opened in 2110.


Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Centennial Arch, Troutdale, Oregon. Looking east, with Broughton Bluff in the background. Day overcast and gray. Image taken from moving car. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Fish, Centennial Arch, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken from moving car. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Depot Rail Museum ...
In 1882 a rail line was built through what is now Troutdale, and continued east through the Columbia River Gorge. Troutdale's founder, Capt. John Harlow, manipulated the Railroad to establish a depot at his townsite. The town of Troutdale grew up along the tracks. The original 1882 depot burned in 1907 and the depot of today was built in the same year.

"... Indoor restrooms were later added and the trackside bay area altered. Otherwise, the building, which was the shipping site of many carloads of fresh vegetables, is much the same as when it was new. ..." [Troutdale Historical Society brochure, 2011]

In 1976 the then-derelict depot was sold for $1.00 to the city of Troutdale by the Union Pacific Railroad. It was moved one and one-half blocks east from the original site, on the north side of the tracks, to its current location, near the south side of the tracks. The depot is now a museum with the station agent's office containing railroad artifacts donated by local residents.

A Union Pacific caboose was donated by the railroad and sits on the depot grounds.

Depot Park lies on the east side of the museum and overlooks Beaver Creek where it merges with the Sandy River.


... 1907 and 2011 ...

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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1907, Troutdale Depot, image taken of photograph on the wall at the Depot Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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2011, Depot building today, now the Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken September 13, 2011.


... Museum views ...

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Inside, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Waiting room, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Stool, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.

Information sign reads: &nsbp; ALL ABOARD!!!   These handy stools were, and are used to help passenger's board and alight from rail cars.


... Union Pacific Caboose 25748 ...

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Union Pacific Caboose, UP25748, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Union Pacific Caboose, UP25748, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Union Pacific Caboose, UP25748, Depot Rail Museum, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Fred Harlow House and Harlow Park ...
The "Harlow House" was built in 1900 by Fred E. Harlow, son of Capt. John Harlow, on property once known as the "Harlow Farm". The City of Troutdale purchased the house and grounds in 1979 and later sold the house to the Troutdale Historical Society. The house is now a museum and the grounds around the house are a part of the Troutdale city park system, known as "Harlow Park". In 1984 the Harlow House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (#84003078). According to the National Register of Historic Places, the house is also known as the "Harlow-Evans House".

Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Harlow House, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Porch, Harlow House, Troutdale, Oregon. Day overcast and gray. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Interior, Harlow House, Troutdale, Oregon. Museum was closed, image shot through front door window. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Robins Way ...
The Harlow House Park is also the trailhead for the Strawberry Meadows Trail, dedicated as "Robins Way". The trail, once an old Indian path, rises behind the Harlow House and extends up the hill towards the Strawberry Meadows subdivision. A strawberry farm once flourished in the area of this subdivision. The trail crosses Harlow Creek. Vegetation obscurs the waters of the trout ponds.

Robins Way Information Sign:

"This ancient trail has known the feet of Native Americans who camped nearby hunting small birds in the wetlands, or drying smelt netted in the Sandy River.

This trail has known the wheels of wagons, weary from crossing prairies, creaking slowly toward Oregon City.

This trail was chosen by scout Joel Palmer for his road up the Columbia River Gorge.

This trail was used by the Harlow family walking uphill to check on their horses.

And this trail is the legacy of Robin Dix, whose family was the last to grow sweet berries here."


... Bob, Robin, and Julie Dix ...
Excerpts from the Troutdale Historical Society, "Bygone Times" newsletter, September 2009:

"Troutdale Historical Society loses a friend. Bob Dix died Friday, Aug.21, at his Boring home at the age of 84. ...

Bob first got a taste for the berry business while tending his father's five acres. In about 1948, he and his wife moved into a rented home in Troutdale, surviving the winter of 1949-1950 when everyone was snowed in for more than a week. They purchased about 40 acres at the top of the hill in Troutdale, the present location of the Strawberry Meadows subdivision. ...

In response to losing two children, Robin in 1982 and Julie and a grandson in 1995, the Dixes helped preserve the canyon and historic trail behind their fields. In honor of their children the trail is called Robins Way. ..."


Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Memorial rock, Robins Way, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Robins Way path crossing Harlow Creek, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Path, Robins Way, Troutdale, Oregon, once a wagon road heading from Troutdale towards Oregon City. Image taken September 13, 2011.
Image, 2011, Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Information sign, Robins Way, Troutdale, Oregon. Image taken September 13, 2011.


Smelt Fishery ...
"A commercial smelt fishery has operated from time to time in the Sandy River at Troutdale. The accompanying photographs [note: not included here] were taken in 1907 and 1922 respectively. In 1927 one of the outfits, Knarr and Sons, sold 53 1/2 tons of the small fish to the Bonneville Hatcheries and the following year 23 tons.

In 1957 a half million pounds of smelt were taken from the Sandy by commerical fishermen - most of them destined for cat food. Then in 1958 the smelt suddenly disappeared and did not make another run until 1971. They had returned to their former large numbers by 1977 when 800,000 pounds were taken by commercial fishermen. In 1979, the last year for which figures were available [note: 1980 publication], 600,000 pounds were taken. Ten commercial outfits operated on the Sandy during the 1977 season, among them the largest vessels were 25 foot gillnet boats, the smallest were 16 foot aluminum rowboats. The smelt do not penetrate far upstream, and the Troutdale bridge at River Mile 3.1 is the upper limit of commerical boat fishing. The runs generally last about three weeks each spring."

Source:    James E. Farnell, Ph.D., Research Analyst, 1980, "Sandy and Hood River Navigability Studies", Division of State Lands, Salem, Oregon, July 1980.



Troutdale Ferry ...
During the last half of the 1800s a ferry crossed the Sandy River approximately two miles upstream from the Sandy's confluence with the Columbia River, today the location of the Oregon community of Troutdale. The approximate crossing was at the location of today's boat launch at the Lewis and Clark State Recreation area. The ferry often transported many Oregon Trail travelers who chose the "river route" from The Dalles instead of the "land route" (Barlow Road). Around 1890 the ferry was replaced by a bridge.

Troutdale Ferry:
"... c.1855-c1900:   A ferry is shown on DLC Map T1N R3E, 1855 near the mouth of the Sandy River. It appears to be still in operation around 1900, as estimated by the dress of the people on a photo of the ferry (Troutdale Historical Society #0377). "Capt. John Harlow petitioned the Multnomah County Court to run a ferry across the Sandy River two miels from its mouth and located on the trail and road from Portland to the Cascades and to run from the west side of the river on the claim of John Harlow to the opposite bank". Petition granted April 7, 1862 for one year. Rates defined. The location of the ferry landing appears to be in the approximate location of the current boat landing at the Lewis and Clark Park.

(Note) The ferry service ended with the building of the "old" bridge and resumed, temporarily, when the "old bridge" was replaced with the current bridge in 1912. The dates of the "old" bridge are not yet defined."

Source:    Charles Floyd Query, 2008, A History of Oregon Ferries since 1826.


Image, 2003, Sandy River near Troutdale, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Sandy River, Oregon, near Troutdale, from right bank looking downstream towards Lewis and Clark Recreation Area boat ramp. Image taken October 18, 2003.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, April 2, 1806 ...
This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present encampment [Cottonwood Beach, Washougal, Washington] or Some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained as much dried meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the Chopunnish. ...     about this time Several Canoes of the nativs arived at our Camp [Cottonwood Beach] among others two from below with Eight men of the Shah-ha-la Nation those men informed us that they reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia near Some pine trees which they pointed to in the bottom South of the Dimond Island [Government Island], they Singled out two young men whome they informed us lited at the Falls of a large river [Willamette Falls] which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South Side Some Miles below us. we readily provailed on them to give us a Sketch of this river [Willamette River] which they drew on a Mat with a coal, it appeared that this river which they Call Mult-no'-mah discharged itself behind the Island we call the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], and as we had left this Island to the South both in decending & assending the river we had never Seen it. they informed us that it was a large river and runs a Considerable distance to the South between the Mountains. I deturmined to take a Small party and return to this river and examine its Size and Collect as much information of the nativs on it or near its enterance into the Columbia of its extent, the Country which it waters and the nativs who inhabit its banks &c. I took with me Six Men. Thompson J. Potts, Peter Crusat, P. Wiser, T. P. Howard, Jos. Whitehouse & my man York in a large Canoe, with an Indian whome I hired for a Sun glass to accompany me as a pilot. at half past 11 A. M. I Set out ...     at 8 miles passed a village on the South side [Chinook Landing and Blue Lake area] at this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond island [Government Island], and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without landing at this village. at 3 P. M. I landed at a large double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation. at this place we had Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall [November 4, 1805, in the vicinity of the Portland International Airport] and whome as I have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia [Celilo Falls].     on the bank at different places I observed Small Canoes which the women make use of to gather Wappato & roots in the Slashes. those Canoes are from 10 to 14 feet long and from 18 to 23 inches wide in the widest part tapering from the center to both ends in this form and about 9 inches deep and So light that a woman may with one hand haul them with ease, and they are Sufficient to Carry a woman on Some loading. I think 100 of those canoes were piled up and Scattered in different directions about in the Woods in the vecinity of this house, the pilot informed me that those Canoes were the property of the inhabitents of the Grand rapids who used them ocasionally to gather roots. ...

I left them [village near today's Portland International Airport] and proceeded on on the South Side [North Portland Harbor] of Image Canoe Island [Hayden Island] which I found to be two Islands hid from the opposit Side by one near the Center of the river. the lower point of the upper and the upper point of the lower cannot be Seen from the North Side of the Columbia on which we had passed both decending and ascending and had not observed the apperture between those islands. at the distance of 13 Miles below the last village [location of Portland International Airport] and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, Called Mult no mah River [Willamette River] so called by the nativs from a Nation who reside on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah [Willamette River] discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may be justly Said to be the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth [Belle Vue Point and Kelley Point, on opposite sides of the mouth of the Willamette, use to be islands] which hides the river from view from the Columbia.     from the enterance of this river [Willamette River] , I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East [Mount Hood, Oregon], Mt St. Helians [Mount St. Helens, Washington] a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians [Mount Adams, Washington, is east of Mount St. Helens]. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer [Mount Rainier, Washington] Nearly North. Soon after I arived at this river an old man passed down of the Clark a'mos Nation who are noumerous and reside on a branch of this river which receives it's waters from Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is emensely high and discharges itself into this river one day and a half up, this distance I State at 40 Miles. This nation inhabits 11 Villages their Dress and language is very Similar to the Quath-lah-poh-tle and other tribes on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island].



The Current of the Multnomar [Willamette River] is as jentle as that of the Columbia glides Smoothly with an eavin surface, and appears to be Sufficiently deep for the largest Ship. I attempted fathom it with a Cord of 5 fathom which was the only Cord I had, could not find bottom ? of the distance across. I proceeded up this river 10 miles from it's enterance into the Columbia to a large house on the N E. Side and Encamped near the house [downstream of Cathedral Park and the St. Johns Bridge, Portland, Oregon, near Portland's Terminal 4.], the flees being So noumerous in the house that we could not Sleep in it.



this is the house of the Cush-hooks Nation who reside at the falls of this river which the pilot informs me they make use of when they Come down to the Vally to gather Wappato. he also informs me that a number of other Smaller houses are Situated on two Bayous which make out on the S. E. Side a little below the house. this house appears to have been laterly abandoned by its inhabitants ...     The course and distance assending the Molt no mar R [Willamette River] from it's enterance into the Columbia at the lower point of the 3rd Image Canoe island.

[This area has changed during the past 200 years. Lewis and Clark called today's Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island". Their "3rd Image Canoe Island" however maybe in reference to the "three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth" (see journal entry above), two of the islands possibly were islands which are today's Belle Vue Point on Sauvie Island, and Pearcy Island which eventually became Kelley Point. Lewis and Clark's route map (Map#79 and Map#80, Moulton, Vol.1) shows a long "Image Canoe Island" with two small islands on the north side of "Image Canoe Island", and three small islands at the mouth of the "Multnomah R.". ]

S. 30 W. 2 Miles to the upper point of a Small Island [???] in the Middle of Moltnomar river [Willamette River]. thence

S. 10 W. 3 miles to a Sluce 80 yards wide [Multnomah Channel] which devides Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] from the Main Stard. Side Shore passing a Willow point on the Lard. Side [???].

S. 60 E. 3 miles to a large Indian house on the Lard Side below Some high pine land.

[Lewis and Clark's map plotted against an 1888 map of the area shows this location to be closer to 2 miles from the Multnomah Channel, just upstream from Portland's Terminal 4, and across from the community of Linnton.]

high bold Shore on the Starboard Side [Tualatin Mountains]. thence

S. 30 E 2 miles to a bend under the high lands on the Stard Side [St. Johns Bridge area located at the base of the Tualatin Mountains]

miles 10 passing a Larborad point [???].

thence the river bends to the East of S East as far as I could See [the stretch through Portland, Oregon]. at this place I think the wedth of the river may be Stated at 500 yards and Sufficiently deep for a Man of War or Ship of any burthern.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    City of Troutdale website, 2011;   Farnell, J.E., Research Analyst, 1980, "Sandy and Hood River Navigability Studies", Division of State Lands, Salem, Oregon, July 1980;   Hood River News, May 28, 1943, "Records reveal development of some earlier roads in mid-Columbia area:, found on "rootsweb.com", 2011;   "kgw.com" news website, 2010;   McArthur, L.A., and McArthur, L.L., 2003, Oregon Geographic Names, Oregon Historical Society Press, Portland, Oregon;   McNeal, W.H., 1953, History of Wasco County, Oregon, found on "rootsweb.com", 2011;   Oregon Historical Quarterly, 1917, vol.18;   Oregon State Archives website, 2011, "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon";   Query, C., 2008, A History of Oregon Ferries since 1826;   Troutdale Historical Society, brochure, 2011, "Preserving the Past, Embracing the Future";   Troutdale Historical Society, "Bygone Times" newsletter, September 2009;   U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records website, 2011;   Wells, S., 2010, "Arch rises above downtown Troutdale", IN: the Portland Tribune, March 16, 2010, from "The Gresham Outlook", March 16, 2010;  

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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July 2013