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Penny Postcard: Submerged Forest in the Wind Mountain, Washington, ca.1920s.
Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, "Wind Mountain and Submerged Forest, Columbia River". Card #321, Chas. S. Lipschuetz Company, Portland, Oregon.
In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
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Wind Mountain and Collins Point, Washington, as seen from Starvation Creek State Park, Oregon.
Image taken September 24, 2004.
"Submerged Forest" ...
Early travelers on the Columbia River encountered an eerie scene between Cascade Locks and The Dalles. A forest of drowned tree stumps lined the edge of the Columbia River waters. With the completion of the
Bonneville Dam in 1838, the "Submerged Forest" is now truly submerged, drowned by the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir.
"ghostly white forest" ...
"Up until the completion of Bonneville Dam in 1938, a ghostly white forest of drowned tree
stumps could be observed along both sides of the Columbia River between Cascade Locks
and The Dalles.
The submerged forest was first mentioned in a geologic textbook in 1853, in "Principles of Geology" by Sir Charles Lyell: "Thus Captains Clark and Lewis found, about the year 1807 (sic), a forest of pines standing erect under water in the body of the Columbia RIver, which they supposed, from the appearance of the trees, to have been submerged only about twenty years."
Both Lewis and Clark in 1805 and Captain Fremont in 1845 recognized that the trees were drowned by the formation of a lake behind a 200-foot landslide dam. Possibly triggered by an earthquake, the dam material slid down from the cliffs of Table Mountain and Greenleaf Peak at a time later determined to be between 1260 and 1290 A.D. The stumps were described in detail by Minnesota biologists Donald B. and Elizabeth G. Lawrence in a series of definitive papers in 1935, 1937, 1937, and 1958. The Lawrences were the first to date the time of the landslide, by caron 14 analyses, as having occurred 700 years before. As of 1936, the Lawrence's counted 3,068 stumps on the south side of the river, and 938 on the north side of the river. The maximum concentration of stumps on the south side occurs just above the mouth of Viento Creek, where more than 800 stumps were counted within a small area."
John Allen, Professor of Geology at Portland State University, 1985, "Time Travel in Oregon".
Table Mountain Landslide ...
The Submerged Forest was a result of the Table Mountain Landslide, officially known as the Bonneville Landslide. Between 250 and 400 years ago five-square-miles of Table Mountain slide into the Columbia River, temporarily blocking the river, and creating a reservoir behind the dam drowning out the landscape.
Lewis and Clark and the Submerged Forest ...
Lewis in Clark passed by the Columbia River's "Submerged Forest" near Wind Mountain on their way to the Pacific in 1805 and again on their return in 1806.
"... a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with ..."
[Clark, October 30, 1805]
"... We find the trunks of maney large pine trees Standing erect as they grew, at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated and none of them vegitateing. at the lowest water of the river maney of those trees are in 10 feet water. the Cause I have attempted to account for as I decended. ..."
[Clark, April 14, 1806]
Wilkes, 1841 ...
The "Sunken Forest" is mention in the 1841 exploration of Charles Wilkes, of the U.S. Exploring Expedition.
"... A short distance above the Cascades, they passed the locality of the sunken forest, which was at the time entirely submerged. Mr. Drayton, on his return, visited the place, and the water had fallen so much as to expose the stumps to view; they were of pine, and quite rotten, so much so that they broke when they were taken hold of. He is of opinion that the point on which the pine forest stands, has been undermined by the great currents during the freshets; and that it has sunk bodily down until the trees were entirely submerged. The whole mass appears to be so matted together by the roots as to prevent their separation. Changes, by the same undermining process, were observed to be going on continually in other parts of the river. ..."
[Wilkes, June 29, 1841]
Fremont, 1843 ...
Two years later, in 1843, Captain Fremont of the U.S. Exploring Expedition wrote about the Submerged Forest.
"... Many places occur along the river, where the stumps, or rather portions of the trunks of pine trees, are standing along the shore, and in the water, where they may be seen at a considerable depth below the surface, in the beautifully clear water. These collections of dead trees are called on the Columbia the submerged forest, and are supposed to have been created by the effects of some convulsion whch formed the cascades, and which, by damming up the river, placed these trees under water and destroyed them. But I venture to presume that the cascades are older than the trees; and as these submerged forests occur at five or six places along the river, I had an opportunity to satisfy myself that they have been formed by immense land slides from the mountains, which here closely shut in the river, and which brought down with them into the river the pines of the mountain. At one place, on the right bank, I remarked a place where a portion of one of these slides seemed to have planted itself, with all the evergreen foliage, and the vegetation of the neighboring hill, directly amidst the falling and yellow leaves of the river trees. It occurred to me that this would have been a beautiful illustration to the eye of a botanist.
[Fremont, November 17, 1843]
Miss A.J. Allen, 1848 ...
From Ten Years in Oregon compiled by Miss A.J. Allen, published in 1848 (courtesy Washington Secretary of State Website, 2007):
After something more than half a day's sail, they arrived at
the Cascades, where, according to an Indian tradition, the
mountains had extended across the river, its current running
under them, till, from some cause, perhaps convulsion, they
had fallen into its depths, and, forming a cataract, and then
a succession of rapids, from which it received its name.
Whether or not the legend be true, it is in the midst of the
Cascade mountains, and there are strong indications of their
having rent asunder at no remote period. The waters, also,
appear to have been dammed, from the fact that there are great
numbers of stumps, or trunks of trees--and many of them
from twenty to thirty feet high--standing in the river, immediately at,
and for many miles above, and no where below,
the fall, perfectly petrified.
From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...
Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]
passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,
[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream -
Starvation Creek and Falls,
the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls,
Warren Creek and Falls,
Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls,
Lindsey Creek and Falls, and
Summit Creek and Falls.]
a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]
[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]
are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which
I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],
the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we
landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...  :
here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round>
Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river,
this day we Saw Some fiew of the large Buzzard Capt. Lewis Shot at one, those Buzzards are much larger than any other of ther
Spece or the largest Eagle white under part of their wings &c. [California Condor]
The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with
grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the
Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood>
which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth>
but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the
mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on>
near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the
Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately
in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and
Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary
a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.
I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at
1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...
I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul
over the rocks, I returned at Dark
a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped
[near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir.
Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.]
is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye
Clark, April 14, 1806 ...
This morning at 7 oClock we were joined by Sgt. Pryor and they three hunters they brought with them 4 deer which drewyer had killed yesterday. we took brackfast and departed at 9 A. M. [from their camp near Dog Mountain] the wind rose and <proceeded on> Continued to blow hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our proceeding. we kept Close allong the N. Shore all day. the river from the rapids [Cascade Rapids] to the Commencement of the narrows [The Dalles] is from ½ to ¾ of a Mile in wedth, and possesses but little Current. the bead is rock except at the enterence of Labiech's river [Hood River] which heads in Mt. Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] and like the quick Sand River [Sandy River] brings down from thence Vast bodies of Sand the Mountains through which the river passes nearly to Cataract River [Klickitat River] are high broken rocky, particularly Covered with fir and white Cedar, and in maney places very romantic scences. Some handsom Cascades are Seen on either Side tumbling from the Stupendious rocks of the mountains into the river. I observe near the river the long leafed Pine which increas as we assend and Superseeds the fir altogether about the Sepulchre rock [Memaloose Island]. We find the trunks of maney large pine trees Standing erect as they grew, at present in 30 feet water [Submerged Forest]; they are much doated and none of them vegitateing. at the lowest water of the river maney of those trees are in 10 feet water. the Cause I have attempted to account for as I decended. at 1 P M. we arrived at a large village Situated in a narrow <village> bottom on the N. Side [between the White Salmon River and Bingen, Washington] a little above the enterance of Canoe Creek [White Salmon River]. their houses are reather detached, and extend for Several Miles. they are about 20 in number. those people Call themselves Wil-la-cum.
... We halted at this village Dined
after dinner we proceeded on our voyage. I walked on Shore with Shabono on the N. Side through a handsom bottom [Bingen area]. met Several parties of women and boys in Serch of herbs & roots to Subsist on maney of them had parcels of the Stems of the Sun flower. I joined Capt Lewis and the party at 6 miles, at which place the river washed the bottom of high Clifts on the N. Side [Bingen Gap]. Several Canoes over take us with families moveing up. we passed 3 encampments and came too in the mouth of a Small Creek [Major Creek] on the N. Side imediately below a village and opposit the Sepulchar rock [Memaloose Island]. this village Consists of about 100 fighting men of Several tibres from the plains to the North Collected here waiting for the Salmon. ...
made [blank] miles