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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Stonehenge Memorial, Maryhill, Washington"
Includes ... Stonehenge Memorial ... Sam Hill ... Maryhill ... Stonehenge, Wiltshire, England ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2004, Stonehenge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stonehenge Memorial, Maryhill, Washington. Image taken April 24, 2004.


Stonehenge Memorial ...
The Stonehenge Memorial was built by entepreneur Sam Hill as a tribute to the soldiers of Klickitat County, Washington, who lost their lives in World War I. Sam Hill's Stonehenge is a full-scale replica of England's famous Stonehenge in Wiltshire (see "Stonehenge, Wiltshire, England" below). Hill, a Quaker pacifist, was mistakenly informed that the original Stonehenge had been used as a sacrificial site.

"... Hill was mistakenly informed that the original Stonehenge had been used as a sacrificial site, and thus constructed the replica to remind us that ''humanity is still being sacrificed to the god of war.'' ..." [Maryhill Museum website, 2006]

Hill's Stonehenge lies at the original Maryhill townsite, four miles east of the Maryhill Museum, just off Washington Highway 14, and upstream of the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge. It lies at Columbia River Mile (RM) 210. The site also includes monuments to the soldiers of Klickitat County who died in World War II, Korea, and Viet Nam. Hill's own crypt is a short walk southwest of Stonehenge on a bluff overlooking the Columbia River.


Dedication ...
The Klickitat County Stonehenge's altar stone was dedicated on July 4, 1918. The full structure was completed and dedicated on May 30, 1929.

"The Hanging Stones" ...
The English Heritage website (2006) states the name "Stonehenge" originates from the Anglo-Saxon period, and the Old English word "henge" means "hanging" or "gibbet". "Stonehenge" therefore translates to "The hanging stones".

"... It's thought that the name Stonehenge originates from the Anglo-Saxon period ­ the old English word ‘henge' meaning hanging or gibbet. So what we have is literally ‘the hanging stones', derived probably from the lintels of the trilithons which appear to be suspended above their massive uprights. Today the word ‘henge' has a specific archaeological meaning: a circular enclosure surrounding settings of stones and timber uprights, or pits. ..."

Views of Stonehenge ...

Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stones ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stones ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind turbines ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Heel stone ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Altar stone ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Stonehenge, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.


Mount Hood ...

Image, 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from inside Washington's Stonehenge Memorial, click to enlarge
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Mount Hood, Oregon ... Stonehenge Memorial, Washington. Image taken April 24, 2004.


Stonehenge and the Missoula Floods ...
Stonehenge Memorial sits on a bench cut into the north wall of the Columbia Hills by the Missoula Floods. In places this bench is nearly one mile wide.
[More]

Image, 2005, Stonehenge Memorial as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stonehenge Memorial, Maryhill, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. Stonehenge is visible in the middle of the image, surrounded by the Columbia Hills. View from while driving on Interstate 84. Image taken September 24, 2005.
Image, 2004, Stonehenge Memorial sitting on the banks of the Columbia River, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stonehenge Memorial, Maryhill, Washington, perched on the banks of the Columbia River. Image taken April 24, 2004.


Stonehenge, Wiltshire, England ...

The original "Stonehenge" is located in Wiltshire, England, on the Salisbury Plain. This Stonehenge was built in three phases and has existed for over 5,000 years. The following compilation is primarily from "About Stonehenge" and "English Heritage" websites (2006).

First Phase:   The first phase of Stonehenge was constructed around 3,100 B.C. (Neolithic period) and was a circle of 56 holes surrounded by a bank and a ditch and another bank. Today the holes are known as the Aubrey Holes, named after John Aubrey, who discovered them around 1666. The holes vary from 2 1/2 feet to 6 feet in width and are evenly spaced (approximately 19 inches apart center to center) in a 288-foot diameter circle. The purpose of the Aubrey holes is unknown. The outerbank is approximately 380 feet in diamater, 8 feet wide, and between 2 and 3 feet high. It is now mostly destroyed. The innerbank is solid chalk and stood at least 6 feet high, 20 feet wide, and had a diameter of 320 feet. Unlike most henges the large bank of this first Stonehenge lies inside rather than outside the ditch. The entrance to this early "Stonehenge" faced northeast and nearly 35 feet wide, and was aligned on the midsummer sunrise. Just outside the entrance is a heel stone made of sarsen sandstone. This stone is approximately 20 feet long and 8 feet wide by 7 feet thick. The lower 4 feet is buried in the ground. The heel stone is surrounded by a small chalk-filled ditch.

Second Phase:   The second phase of Stonehenge construction was between 2,900 and 2,400 B.C.. Post holes were randomly placed within the henge, possibly used to support wooden structures. The purpose of these possible structures is unknown. Also during this period the entrance to the henge was widened by 25 feet and a 40-foot-wide avenue extended outward two miles to the River Avon.

Third Phase:   The third phase of Stonehenge is the stone monument, built between 2,600 and 1,600 B.C. (Bronze Age). This phase itself consists of three to six subphases. First two concentric circles of at least 82 bluestone "Menhirs" (large, rough-hewn standing stone) were erected around 2,500 B.C., using stone transported from the Prescelli Mountains in Pembroke, South Wales, approximately 245 miles away. Each stone weighed 4 to 5 tons. They were placed 6 feet apart and 35 feet from the center of the henge. Next, around 2,300 B.C. the bluestones were dug up and rearranged, and thirty large sandstone Sarsen stones were erected in a 100-foot diameter circle. Some of these stones weigh nearly 45 tons, and are from a quarry 20 miles to the north. These stones were erected and topped with lintels. Within this Sarsen circle five trilithons (pairs of uprights with a lintel on top) were arranged in a horseshoe shape. Finally the bluestones were arranged into their present form as an inner circle and horseshoe, duplicating the Sarsens. This Stonehenge was aligned with the rising of the midsummer sun. In 1923 Lieutenant-Colonel Hawley discovered two more concentric rings of pits about 20 feet apart, circling the Sarsen stones. What they were to be used for is unknown.

In 1918 the British government acquired Stonehenge from its then current owner Sir Cecil Chubb, and today it is managed by English Heritage on behalf of the Government. In 1986 it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site. The monument today is about half of the original monument.


Penny Postcard, Stonehenge, Salisbury, England Penny Postcard: Stonehenge with sheep, England. Penny Postcard, "Stonehenge". Printed and Published by The Mezzotint Co., Brighton. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.

"... The great and ancient stone circle of Stonehenge is one of the wonders of the world. What visitors see today are the substantial remnants of the last in a sequence of such monuments erected between circa 3000BC and 1600BC. There has always been intense debate over quite what purpose Stonehenge served. Certainly, it was the focal point in a landscape filled with prehistoric ceremonial structures, now a World Heritage Site. ..." [English Heritage website, 2006]
Penny Postcard, Stonehenge, Salisbury, England Penny Postcard: Stonehenge, England, ca.1935. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1935, "Stonehenge, near Salisbury". H.B. Ltd. London, F.C. 1, Entire British Production. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Stonehenge, Salisbury, England Penny Postcard: Stonehenge, England, from the northeast. Penny Postcard, "Stonehenge, Wiltshire, From the North-east". Ministry of Works 3, Crown Copyright, Printed in Great Britain. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 22, 1805 ...
A fine morning calm and fare we Set out [downstream of the John Day Dam] at 9 oClock passed a verry bad rapid [today the location of the "Sam Hill Memorial Bridge", U.S. Highway 97 crossing from Biggs Junction, Oregon, to Maryhill, Washington. The rapid, which was labeled "Five-Mile Rapid" in 1858, is now under the waters of the Lake Celilo, the reservoir behind The Dalles Dam.] at the head of an Island close under the Stard. Side [???], above this rapid on the Stard. Side is Six Lodges of nativs Drying fish [Maryhill vicinity], at 9 mls. passed a bad rapid [Deschutes Rapid, also under the waters of Lake Celilo] at the head of a large Island [Miller Island] of high, uneaven [rocks], jutting over the water, a Small Island in a Stard. Bend [???] opposit the upper point, on which I counted 20 parcels of dryed and pounded fish; on the main Stard Shore opposit to this Island five Lodges of Indians are Situated Several Indians in Canoes killing fish with gigs [Haystack Butte, Columbia Hills, vicinity], <and nets> &c. opposit the center of this Island of rocks [Miller Island] which is about 4 miles long we discovered the enterence of a large river on the Lard. Side [Deschutes River] which appeared to Come from the S. E. - we landed at Some distance above the mouth of this river [Deschutes River] and Capt. Lewis and my Self Set out to view this river above its mouth, as our rout was intersepted by a deep narrow Chanel which runs out of this river into the Columbia a little below the place we landed, leaveing a high dry rich Island of about 400 yards wide and 800 yards long here we Seperated, I proceeded on to the river and Struck it at the foot of a verry Considerable rapid [Deschutes Rapids], here I beheld an emence body of water Compressd in a narrow Chanel of about 200 yds in width, fomeing over rocks maney of which presented their tops above the water, when at this place Capt. Lewis joined me haveing ....     at about two miles above this River appears to be confined between two high hils below which it divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands covered with a low groth of timber, and has a rapid as far as the narrows three Small Islands in the mouth of this River, <we returned> this River haveing no Indian name that we could find out, except "the River on which the Snake Indians live," we think it best to leave the nameing of it untill our return [Deschutes River].

we proceeded on pass the mouth of this river [Deschutes River] at which place it appears to discharge 1/4 as much water as runs down the Columbia. at two miles below this River passed Eight Lodges on the Lower point of the Rock Island [Miller Island] aforesaid at those Lodges we saw large logs of wood which must have been rafted down the To war-ne hi ooks River [Deschutes River], below this Island [Miller Island] on the main Stard Shore is 16 Lodges of nativs; here we landed a fiew minits to Smoke, the lower point of one Island opposit [???] which heads in the mouth of Towarnehiooks River [Deschutes River] which I did not observe untill after passing these lodges     about 1/2 a mile lower passed 6 more Lodges on the Same Side and 6 miles below the upper mouth of Towarnehiooks River [Deschutes River] the comencement of the pitch of the Great falls [Celilo Falls], opposit on the Stard. Side is 17 Lodges of the nativs [near Wishram, Washington]     we landed and walked down accompanied by an old man to view the falls [Celilo Falls], and the best rout for to make a portage ...     we made 19 miles to day





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: "AboutStonehenge.com" website, 2006; English Heritage website, 2006; Maryhill Museum website, 2004, 2006.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2008