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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Skamania and Skamania Landing, Washington"
Includes ... Skamania ... Skamania Landing ... Dodson Creek ... Dodson Creek Dam ... Franz Lake NWR ... Shahala Lake ... Shahala Park ... Stone House ...
Image, 2005, at Skamania Landing looking across, click to enlarge
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At Skamania Landing dock, looking across the Columbia River. Image taken February 26, 2005.


Skamania and Skamania Landing ...
Skamania and Skamania Landing are located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 140. Upstream is Duncan Creek, Woodard Creek, and Beacon Rock. Downstream are Indian Mary Creek, Franz and Arthur Lakes, and the Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Six miles downstream is the Washington community of Prindle and inland between the two is located Archer Mountain. Across the river from Skamania Landing is Dodson, Oregon, and the prominent Yeon Mountain. The town of Skamania is inland from Skamania Landing.

Lewis and Clark and Skamania Landing ...
Lewis and Clark passed the Skamania Landing area on November 2, 1805, on their way to their camp for the night at Rooster Rock.

"... passed three Islands covered with tall timber opposit the Beatin rock    Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side, imediately below on the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses, which is Situated between 2 Small Creeks, and are of the Same construction of those above ..." [Clark, November 2, 1805]

Today, the "three Islands" are two, Pierce and Ives, and "Beatin rock" is Beacon Rock. The two "Small Creeks" are Woodard Creek on the upstream side of the village and Duncan Creek on the downstream side of the village.

On their return in April, Lewis and Clark stopped to visit the village. On April 9, 1806, Captain Clark calls the village a "Wah-clel-lah" village and writes that the village appeared to be "the wintering Station of two bands of the Shah-ha-la Nation".

"... at 7 A. M. we Set out and proceeded on to the Camp of Joseph & Reubin Fields. they had killed nothing. here we did not delay but proceeded on to Wah-clel-lah Village on the North Side and brackfast ...    This Village appears to be the wintering Station of two bands of the Shah-ha-la Nation. One band has already moved the Falls of the Multnomah which is the place they take their Salmon. The other band is now moveing a fiew miles above to the foot of the first rapid on this river, at which place they take their Salmon. 14 houses only appear occupied and the inhabitants of those moveing off hourly, they take with them in their Canoes independent of all their household effects the bark of their houses, and boards. 9 houses has been latterly abandened and 14 others is yet is thinly inhabited at present, and the remains of 10 or 12 others are to be Seen and appears to have been enhabited last fall. those people were not hospital ..." [Clark, April 9, 1806]

Early Skamania ...
According to Robert Hitchman in "Place Names of Washington" (1985, Washington State Historical Society):

"Skamania (T2N, R6E, S34): Settlement on north bank of Columbia River, 33 miles east of Vancouver, southwest Skamania County. An early name for this settlement, no longer used, was "Butler". The Indian name, which applies to parts of the Columbia River, means swift water or swift river."

"Skamania" to Replace "Butler".

"Butler, Skamania County, Washington, is destined to pass from existence. After December 1 the town on the North Bank Railroad, where fishermen get off and on the trains, will lose its present name and to be rechristened "Skamania." The change is made to avoid conflict with other Butlers in various parts of the country."


Source:    "Sunday Oregonian", November 14, 1914, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016.


Fresedale, Marrs Landing, Mendota, Butler, Butler's Landing, Butler Station, Edgewater, and Skamania ...
Besides "Butler" and "Skamania", the Skamania area has been known by many names, including Fresedale, Marrs Landing, Mendota, Butler, Butler's Landing, Butler Station, Edgewater, and Skamania.

"[Some] early settlements had their names changed frequently, as settlers moved in and out. For example, the little town of Skamania has been known as Fresedale, Marrs Landing, Mendota, Butler, Butler's Landing, Edgewater, and Skamania in its 100 years of existence." [Michael S. Spranger, 1997, "Columbia Gorge: A Unique American Treasure", Diane Publishing]

Fresedale shows up in the 1883 Official Postal Guide, Marrs Landing is on an 1897 Post Route Map, Butler's Landing shows up in a 1902 "Morning Oregonian", and Edgewater and Butler Station show up in a 1914 "Morning Oregonian". In December 1914 "Skamania" became the official name.

1883 ...
The 1883 United States Official Postal Guide lists "Fresedale, Skamania, Wash."

1896 ...
"The Stevenson Pioneer says that a Fishermen's Protective Association has been formed by the fishermen of Marr's Landing and vicinity, who hoped to extend the organization all along the river to The Dalles. ... [The Dalles Daily Chronicle", October 5, 1896, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016]

1902 ...
"E.M. Rands, State Senator from Clark County, Washington, was in Portland yesterday, returning from Butler's Landing, Skamania County, where he delivered a Fourth of July oration." ["Morning Oregonian", July 7, 1902, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016]

1911 ...
"STEVENSON, Wash., Nov. 14 -- (Special.) -- W.H. Shores, brakeman on Spokane, Portland & Seattle train No.75, en route from Fallbridge to Vacauver, was murdered tonight about 11 o'clock at a point a half mile east of Butler Station." ["Morning Oregonian", November 15, 1911, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016]

1914 ...
"I WILL receive sealed bids for a stock of general merchandise consisting principally of groceries, etc., located at Edgewater, Washington, Butler station, on the North Bank Railway, ..." ["Morning Oregonian", November 9, 1914, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016]

Jim Forte's website "Postal History" (2016) gives dates to early Skamania post offices.

  • 1882 - 1883 ... Fresedale
  • 1892 - 1899 ... Marrs Landing
  • 1899 - 1902 ... Mendota (note: Lewis County Mendota, 1909 - 1923)
  • 1902 - 1911 ... Butler
  • 1911 - 1915 ... Edgewater
  • 1915 - 1974 ... Skamania

Image, 1897 Railroad Map, Camas to Viento, click to enlarge
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HISTORICAL MAP, 1897, "Post Route Map of the State of Washington", showing the Columbia River from Camas, Washington, to Viento, Oregon. Map shows the use of "Marrs Landing" where today is located Skamania. Original Map courtesy University of Washington Libraries, 2006.


Views ...

Image, 2015, Yeon Mountain from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Yeon Mountain from Skamania Landing boat ramp, Washington. Image taken December 31, 2015.
Image, 2014, Shahala Park, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bridge over eastern end of Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington. Oil train on tracks in the background. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2014, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Wetlands east of Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2013, Skamania, Washington, click to enlarge
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Skamania General Store, Skamania, Washington. View from moving car on Washington State Highway 14. Image taken March 24, 2013.
Image, 2012, Skamania, Washington, click to enlarge
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Skamania County Volunteer Fire Department, Skamania, Washington. View from moving car on Washington State Highway 14. Image taken June 15, 2012.
Image, 2016, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Burlington Northern Santa Fe tracks at Skamania Landing, Washington. View looking east. Image taken June 11, 2016.


Skamania Landing, etc.

  • Duncan Creek ...
  • Duncan Creek Dam ...
  • Franz Lake NWR ...
  • Sams Walker Trails and Day-Use Park ...
  • Shahala Lake and Park ...
  • Stone House ...
  • View from Oregon ...
  • Views from Skamania Landing ...


Duncan Creek ...
Duncan Creek enters the Columbia River at RM 140.5, on the east side of Skamania Landing. Before reaching the Columbia River, Duncan Creek flows southeast and then northeast into Shahala Lake, the reservoir behind the 120-foot-long Duncan Creek Dam. Duncan Creek Dam was constructed in the early 1960s and then modified to help Chum Salmon migrate into the creek.
[More]


Image, 2004, at Skamania Landing looking upstream, click to enlarge
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Columbia River shoreline upstream from Skamania Landing, Washington. Drainage from Duncan Creek/Shahala Lake is visible on the left. View from the boat dock. Image taken August 1, 2004.


Duncan Creek Dam ...
Duncan Creek Dam was constructed in the early 1960s and then modified to help Chum Salmon migrate into the creek.
[More]

Image, 2015, Duncan Creek Dam, click to enlarge
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Duncan Creek Dam as seen from Bridge, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken January 25, 2015.
Image, 2015, Duncan Creek Dam, click to enlarge
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Duncan Creek Dam as seen from Bridge, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken January 25, 2015.


Franz Lake NWR ...
The Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 138, and is located just downstream of Skamania Landing. The Franz Lake Refuge is within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, and is a popular place for wintering tundra swans. Its system of river streams and wetlands provide habitat for breeding, migrating and wintering waterfowl and other aquatic migratory birds and raptors such as bald eagles. It may be viewed from an overlook located near Washington State Highway 14 at milepost 31.
[More]

Image, 2003, Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge, click to enlarge
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Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. View from overlook off of Washington State Highway 14. Image taken October 25, 2003.


Sams Walker Trails and Day-Use Park ...
History:
"In 1983, Skamania County approved a 78-acre riverfront subdivision called Hidden Harbor on wetlands just downriver from Washington's Beacon Rock State Park and across the Columbia River from Oregon's renowned Horsetail Falls. While today's National Scenic Area would not allow such a subdivision, the law was still three years away from enactment. Friends of the Columbia Gorge filed a lawsuit on the ecological impact to the shoreline and successfully stopped the subdivision. The Trust for Public Land later bought the property and in 1988 conveyed it to the U.S. Forest Service; today it is a public park. "


Source:    "Friends of the Gorge" website, Sams Walker Loop, 2016.

"William Sams, an ex-Oregonian who moved to Skamania, Wash., in 1905, died Friday at the Skyline hospital in White Salmon, Wash. Funeral service will be Tuesday at 10 a.m. at Swank Memorial chapel in Camas, Wash. Vault interment will be in Washougal cemetery. Mr. Sams, 97, was born October 31, 1858, in Prescott, Wis. He came to Oregon and homesteaded at Warrendale in 1887. From 1896 until 1905 he owned and operated fish wheels at Ives island and Warrendale.

He was postmaster at Skamania from 1910 to 1915 and was a member of the Cape Horn grange No. 170.

Survivors include sons, W.L., C.A. and Arch M., all of Skamania; Lee E., Bonneville, and Robert D., Seattle; daughters, Mrs. Elmer Walker and Mrs. George McDonald both of Skamania; Mrs. William Reiber, Ferndale, Wash.; Mrs. E.J. Shields, Oswego; Mrs. Florence Henrikson, Port Orchard, Wash., and Miss Marie Sames, Manhatten Beach, Cal.; 14 grandchildren; 19 great-grandchildren, and one great-great-grandchild.


Source:    The Oregonian, July 10, 1955, courtesy "Find A Grave" website, 2016.


Image, 2015, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sign, Sams-Walker Trails and Day-Use Park, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken February 16, 2015.
Image, 2015, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sign, Nature Trail, Sams-Walker Trails and Day-Use Park, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken February 16, 2015.
Image, 2015, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sign, Grace's Meadow, Sams-Walker Trails and Day-Use Park, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken February 16, 2015.

Grace Sams Walker was the second of William Sams' fourteen children. Grace and her husband Elmer purchased this property from her father, William Sams, in the 1930s.
Image, 2016, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Grace's Meadow, Sams-Walker Trails and Day-Use Park, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken June 11, 2016.

William Sams owned this property and planted this meadow in grasses, providing a nutritious grazing for the Sams horses and dairy cows.
Image, 2016, Skamania County, Washington, Washington, click to enlarge
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Grace's Meadow, Sams-Walker Trails and Day-Use Park, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken September 26, 2016.


Shahala Lake and Park ...
Shahala Lake is the reservoir behind the Duncan Creek Dam.

First Peoples
"In what was to become Skamania County, the first residents called themselves Chilluckittequw and they lived along the rivers that drained into the Columbia between Beacon Rock and about Hood River. They spoke a dialect described as the Upper Division of Chinookan and could communicate with other tribes that lived along the Columbia from The Dalles to the mouth at the Pacific. Explorers Lewis and Clark (1805) called them the Smock-shops and other observers dubbed them Sahellellah, Shahala, Ninuhltidihs, and Kwikwuilits. American settlers named them Cascades. "

Source:    "historylink.org" website, 2014, "the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History"

Image, 2014, Shahala Park, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sign, Shahala Park, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2016, Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken September 26, 2016.
Image, 2014, Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2014, Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Shahala Lake, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.


Stone House ...
An old stone house lies on the north side of Washington State Highway 14 just downstream of Skamania Landing and north of Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge.
[More]

Image, 2013, Stone House, click to enlarge
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Stone House, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken February 19, 2013.
Image, 2013, Stone House, click to enlarge
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Stone House, Skamania County, Washington. Image taken February 19, 2013.


View from Oregon ...

Image, 2005, at Skamania Landing looking upstream, click to enlarge
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Skamania Landing, Washington, as seen from the boat dock near Dodson, Oregon. Image taken October 22, 2005.


Views from Skamania Landing ...

Image, 2005, Yeon Mountain from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Yeon Mountain and Katanai Rock from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Boat ramp at Dodson, Oregon, from Skamania Landing, Washington, click to enlarge
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Boat ramp at Dodson, Oregon, as seen from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2004, Columbia River looking upstream from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Columbia River upstream from Skamania Landing, Washington. View from boat dock. Image taken August 1, 2004.
Image, 2005, Columbia River upstream from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Columbia River upstream from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Beacon Rock from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Beacon Rock from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Columbia River downstream from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Columbia River downstream from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Yeon Mountain, St. Peters Dome, and Rock of Ages, from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Yeon Mountain, Katanai Rock, St. Peters Dome, and Rock of Ages, Oregon, as seen from Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Oregon shore through trees, from Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Columbia Gorge view from Skamania Landing, Washington. Yeon Mountain is prominent on the middle skyline with Katanai Rock at its lower base and St. Peter's Dome to the right. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, At Skamania Landing, click to enlarge
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Kayaking, Skamania Landing, Washington. Image taken June 29, 2005.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 2, 1805 ...
Examined the rapid below us [from their camp at Fort Rains, looking at the Cascade Rapids] more pertcelarly the danger appearing too great to Hazzard our Canoes loaded, dispatched all the men who could not Swim with loads to the end of the portage below, I also walked to the end of the portage with the carriers where I delayed untill everry articles was brought over and canoes arrived Safe. here we brackfast and took a Meridn. altitude 59 45' 45" about the time we were Setting out 7 Squars came over loaded with Dried fish, and bear grass neetly bundled up, Soon after 4 Indian men came down over the rapid in a large canoe.     passed a rapid at 2 miles & 1 at 4 miles opposite the lower point of a high Island on the Lard Side [Bradford Island], and a little below 4 Houses on the Stard. Bank, a Small Creek on the Lard Side [Tanner Creek] opposit Straw berry Island [Hamilton Island], which heads below the last rapid, opposit the lower point of this Island [Hamilton Island] passed three Islands covered with tall timber [today there are two, Ives and Pierce] opposit the Beatin rock [Beacon Rock]    Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side, imediately below on the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses [indentified on Atlas map#79 as the "Wah-clallah Tribe of Shahala Nation", location near today's Skamania and Skamania Landing], which is Situated between 2 Small Creeks [Woodard Creek and Duncan Creek], and are of the Same construction of those above; here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each Side, with Pine, Spruce pine, Cotton wood, a Species of ash, and alder.     at 17 miles passed a rock near the middle of the river [Phoca Rock], about 100 feet high and 80 feet Diamuter,     proceed on down a Smoth gentle Stream of about 2 miles wide, in which the tide has its effect as high as the Beaten rock [Beacon Rock] or the Last rapids at Strawberry Island [Hamilton Island],- Saw great numbers of waterfowl of Different kinds, Such as Swan, Geese, white & grey brants, ducks of various kinds, Guls, & Pleaver [today just below Beacon Rock is Franz National Wildlife Refuge]. ...     we encamped under a high projecting rock on the Lard. Side [Rooster Rock, with Crown Point rising above it],     here the mountains leave the river on each Side [leaving the Columbia River Gorge, Steigerwald Land NWR is on the north and the Sandy River delta is on the south], which from the great Shute to this place is high and rugid [Columbia River Gorge]; thickly Covered with timber principalley of the Pine Species. The bottoms below appear extensive and thickly Covered with wood.     river here about 2 miles wide.     Seven Indians in a Canoe on their way down to trade with the nativs below, encamp with us, those we left at the portage passed us this evening and proceeded on down The ebb tide rose here about 9 Inches, the flood tide must rise here much higher- we made 29 miles to day from the Great Shute [Cascade Locks]-






Clark, April 9, 1806 ...
at 7 A. M. we Set out [from their camp in Shepperds Dell] and proceeded on to the Camp of Joseph & Reubin Fields [possibly near Dodson, Oregon]. they had killed nothing. here we did not delay but proceeded on to Wah-clel-lah Village on the North Side and brackfast [upstream of today's Skamania and Skamania Landing, between Duncan and Woodard Creeks] ...     This Village appears to be the wintering Station of two bands of the Shah-ha-la Nation. One band has already moved the Falls of the Multnomah which is the place they take their Salmon. The other band is now moveing a fiew miles above to the foot of the first rapid on this river, at which place they take their Salmon. 14 houses only appear occupied and the inhabitants of those moveing off hourly, they take with them in their Canoes independent of all their household effects the bark of their houses, and boards. 9 houses has been latterly abandened and 14 others is yet is thinly inhabited at present, and the remains of 10 or 12 others are to be Seen and appears to have been enhabited last fall. those people were not hospital and with Some dificuelty we precured 5 dogs and a fiew Wappato of them. ...    at 2 oClock P. M we Set out and passed under the Beacon rock [Beacon Rock] on the North Side of two Small Islds [Pierce and Ives Islands[. Situated nearest the N. side. at 4 P. M. we arived at the first rapid [beginning of the Cascades Rapids, also known as the "Lower Falls of the Columbia"] at the head of Straw berry island [Hamilton Island] at which place on the N W. Side of the Columbia here we found the nativs from the last village rebuilding their habitations of the bark of <from> their old Village 16 Huts are already Compleated and appear only temporrary it is most probable that they only reside here <in> dureing the Season of the Salmon. as we Could not pass with the large Canoes up the N. W. Side for the rocks, the wind high and a rainey disagreeable evining. our Smallest Canoe being too low to cross through the high waves, we Sent her up on the N W. side with Drewyer and the two Fields and after purchaseing 2 dogs Crossed and into the Sluce of a large high Island [Bradford Island] seperated from the S. E Side by a narrow chanel, in this chanel we found a good harbor and encamped on the lower Side [near Tanner Creek]. We Saw Some deer Sign and Collins to hunt in the mornig untill the Canoes were toed above the rapids. made 16 Miles to day. evening wet & disagreeable.



Lewis, April 9, 1806
This morning early we commenced the operation of reloading our canoes; at 7 A. M. we departed [from their camp at Shepperds Dell] and proceeded on to the Camp of Reubin and Joseph Fields [near Dodson, Oregon] they had not killed any game; we made no halt at this place but continued our rout to the Wah-clel-lah Village which is situated on the North side of the river [upstream of the location of today's Skamania and Skamania Landing, between Duncan and Woodard Creeks] about a mile below the beacon rock [Beacon Rock]; here we halted and took breakfast. ...     this village appears to be the winter station of the Wah-clel-lahs and Clahclellars, the greater part of the former have lately removed to the falls of the Multnomah, and the latter have established themselves a few miles above on the North side of the river opposite the lower point of brant island [Bradford Island], being the commencement of the rapids, here they also take their salmon; they are now in the act of removing, and not only take with them their furniture and effects but also the bark and most of the boards which formed their houses. 14 houses remain entire but are at this time but thinly inhabited, nine others appear to have been lately removed, and the traces of ten or twelve others of ancient date were to be seen in the rear of their present village. ...     on our way to this village we passed several beautifull cascades which fell from a great hight over the stupendious rocks which cloles the river on both sides nearly, except a small bottom on the South side in which our hunters were encamped. the most remarkable of these casscades falls about 300 feet perpendicularly over a solid rock into a narrow bottom of the river on the south side. it is a large creek, situated about 5 miles above our encampment of the last evening. several small streams fall from a much greater hight, and in their decent become a perfect mist which collecting on the rocks below again become visible and decend a second time in the same manner before they reach the base of the rocks. [Multnomah Falls area]     the hills have now become mountains high on each side are rocky steep and covered generally with fir and white cedar. ...     at 2 P. M. we renewed our voyage; passed under the beacon rock [Beacon Rock] on the north side, to the left of two small islands situated near the shore [Ives and Pierce Islands].     at four P.M. we arrived at the Clah-clel-lah village; here we found the natives busily engaged in erecting their new habitations, which appear to be reather of a temperary kind; it is most probable that they only reside here during the salmon season. we purchased two dogs of these people who like those of the village blow were but sulky and illy disposed; they are great rogues and we are obliged to keep them at a proper distance from our baggage. as we could not ascend the rapid [foot of the Cascade Rapids] by the North side of the river with our large canoes [Hamilton Island area], we passed to the oposite side and entered the narrow channel which seperates brant Island [Bradford Island] from the South shore; the evening being far spent and the wind high raining and very cold we thought best not to attempt the rapids [Cascade Rapids] this evening, we therefore sought a safe harbour in this narrow channel and encamped on the main shore [Tanner Creek, Oregon]. our small canoe with Drewyer and the two feildses was unable to pass the river with us in consequence of the waves they therefore toed her up along the N. side of the river and encamped [upstream end of Bonneville Dam, location of today's North Powerhouse] opposite the upper point of brant Island [Bradford Island]. after halting this evening I took a turn with my gun in order to kill a deer, but was unsuccessful. I saw much fresh sign. the fir has been lately injured by a fire near this place and many of them have discharged considerable quantities of rozin. we directed that Collins should hunt a few hours tomorrow morning and that Gibson and his crew should remain at his place untill we returned and employ themselves in collectng rozin which our canoes are now in want of.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Forte, Jim, "PostalHistory.com" website, 2016;    Hitchman, R., 1985, "Place Names of Washington", Washington State Historical Society;    Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016;    "historylink.org" website, 2014;    "PostalHistory.com" website, 2016;    Spranger, M.S., 1997, "Columbia Gorge: A Unique American Treasure", Diane Publishing;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2016