Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Portland International Airport"
Includes ... Portland International Airport ... PDX ... "Ski-loot" Village ... Deborah Butterfield Horse Sculptures ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, and Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Mount Hood, Oregon, and Portland International Airport. Image taken July 4, 2003.


Portland International Airport ...
The Portland International Airport (PDX) began in 1925 and was located on Swan Island, on the Willamette River near downtown Portland, Oregon. During the late 1930s during the Depression, Works Progress Administration (WPA) funded a program to build a larger airport at PDX's current location, on the southern shore of the Columbia River between River Mile (RM) 110 to approximately RM 114. Across from the airport is Government Island where Lewis and Clark had their camp of November 3, 1905. Downstream is Hayden Island and the mouth of the Willamette River. On the Washington shore across from PDX is the "Small Prarie" mentioned by Lewis and Clark, which would eventually be the location of Pearson Field and Fort Vancouver. To the south is Rocky Butte - a small volcano - which rises above the airport.

Image, 2005, Plane landing at Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Columbia River, Portland International Airport, Rocky Butte, and landing plane. View from Wintler Park, Washington. Image taken October 21, 2005.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Tower, Portland International Airport. Image taken December 2, 2006.


Lewis and Clark and the "Skil-loot" Village ...
Lewis and Clark stopped at the location of today's Portland International Airport on November 4, 1805. They landed at the "Skil-loot" village located there.

"... near the lower point of this diamond Island is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel, and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: 24 of those houses we[re] thached with Straw, and covered with bark, the other house is built of boards in the form of those above, except that it is above ground and about 50 feet in length and covered with broad Split boards This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation I counted 52 canoes on the bank in front of this village maney of them verry large and raised in bow. ...     at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie in which there is a pond opposit on the Stard ..." [Clark, November 4, 1805]

"diamond Island" and the "large Island Seperated from a Small one" are part of today's Government Island complex, and the island "7 miles below this village" is today's Hayden Island. The "Small Prairie" is the location of today's Fort Vancouver and Pearson Field.


Lewis and Clark in 1806 ...
As the men returned home in 1806 they spent 6 days camping on the Washington side of the Columbia at Cottonwood Beach. On April 2, 1806, Captain Clark and a few of the men left this camp and headed back downstream to search for and explore the mouth of the Willamette River. Soon after they left Cottonwood Beach they passed a village on the south side of the Columbia River, located near today's Blue Lake Park. They did not stop. The men kept going to the "Skil-loot" Village of the year before, refering this time as belonging to the "Ne-er-cho-ki-oo" tribe of the "Shah-ha-la" Nation, where they stopped.

"... at 8 miles passed a village on the South side at this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond island, and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without landing at this village. at 3 P. M. I landed at a large double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation.     at this place we had Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall and whome as I have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia ..." [Clark, April 2, 1806]

Airport History ...
Portland International Airport (PDX) was not Portland's first airport. In 1927 the Swan Island Airport opened as the region’s first commercial airport, hosting a visit from Charles Lindbergh in the Spirit of St. Louis for the airport dedication ceremony. However, when the U.S. Bureau of Air Commerce denied authorization to operate the DC-3 (the most modern aircraft of the time) out of Swan Island, it became apparent that a newer/bigger airport was needed. Funding from the WPA built a new airport on the east side of the city, and the Portland-Columbia Airport was dedicated in 1940. It served around 100,000 passengers in its first year. In 1951 the airport was renamed the "Portland International Airport". In 2009 the Portland International Airport served more than 12 million passengers and accommodated more than 250,000 tons of air freight.

Penny Postcard, Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon, ca.1940 Penny Postcard: Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon, ca.1940. Penny Postcard, ca.1940, "Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon." View looking east with Mount Hood and McGuire Island on the left. Published by Angelus Commercial Studio, Portland, Oregon. Card #25. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2005, Portland International Airport from Rocky Butte, click to enlarge
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Portland International Airport as seen from Rocky Butte. The Columbia River and Vancouver, Washington, are in the background. Image taken June 15, 2005.


October 2006 ...

Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Approaching Portland International Airport. Image taken October 19, 2006.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Entering Parking Garage, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 19, 2006.
Image, 2006, Loading area with cover, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Covered loading/unloading area, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Portland International Airport. Image taken October 19, 2006.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Ceiling pattern, covered loading/unloading area, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Shops and Dining, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Clock, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 19, 2006.


Portland International Airport, etc.

  • Deborah Butterfield Horse Sculptures ...
  • PDX Carpet ...


Deborah Butterfield Horse Sculptures ...
In 1995 the Portland International Airport commissioned Deborah Butterfield for an exhibit of her horse sculptures for which were placed along the drive as one leaves the airport.
[More]

Image, 2006, Deborah Butterfield horse sculptures, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Deborah Butterfield horse sculptures, Portland International Airport. Left side, view from car, rainy day. Image taken October 24, 2006.

Sculpture on the left is "Lyon", created in 1995, cast bronze, 91 x 112 x 30 inches. Scupture on the right is "Princess Pine", created in 1995, cast bronze, 83 x 104 x 29 inches.
[Robert Gordon, 2003, Deborah Butterfield, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers]


PDX Carpet ...
(to come)

Image, 2006, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Old iconic carpet, Portland International Airport. Image taken October 23, 2006.
Image, 2017, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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Old iconic carpet merchandise, Portland International Airport. Image taken June 8, 2017.
Image, 2017, Portland International Airport, click to enlarge
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New carpet, Portland International Airport. Image taken June 8, 2017.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon, ca.1940 Penny Postcard: Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon, ca.1940. Penny Postcard, ca.1940, "Portland-Columbia Airport, Portland, Oregon." View looking east with Mount Hood and McGuire Island on the left. Published by Angelus Commercial Studio, Portland, Oregon. Card #25. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 4, 1805 ...
A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock [from their camp on the north side of Government Island, approximately across from Fisher's Landing], one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island [Government Island] to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered     (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this diamond Island [Government Island] is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel [Lewis and Clark show two large islands on their maps, both in today's Government Island area], and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands [even today the Government Island reach is a complex of many islands] as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; [since 1983 the Interstate 205 bridge crosses Government Island connecting Oregon to Washington]     on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: [near Portland International Airport]; ...     This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation ...

at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island [Hayden Island] nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie [Jolie Prairie, today the location of Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark. Lewis and Clark camp on this prairie on their return] in which there is a pond [one of the many ponds which use to dot this area] opposit on the Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, ...     joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. ...

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with [Tomahawk pipe, thus giving rise to the name Tomahawk Island] ...    we proceeded on

[The men have passed through the area which, 20 years later, Dr. John McLoughlin would choose for a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, later to become Fort Vancouver and eventually the city of Vancouver, Washington.]

met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of <man &> a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the <bow & Stern> of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man [Lewis and Clark then named Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island"]     two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island [Hayden Island] which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island [the location of Vancouver Landing and since 1917 the Interstate 5 Bridge connecting Oregon to Washington State], three Small Islands at its lower point [The downstream end of Hayden Island was at one time composed of small islands. One of these, Pearcy Island, would become today's Kelley Point.]. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd. Side [it wasn't until Lewis and Clark's return trip they would discover the mouth of the Willamette River] as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower [Sauvie Island is located at this stretch, but it is not until the return that Lewis and Clark recognize it as a separate island], and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river [Sandy River] passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side [on Sauvie Island], near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien [Mount St. Helens, Washington] which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid [Umatilla Rapids, Captain Clark actually saw Mount Adams] on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe- about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side [Post Office Lake vicinity, today within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side ...

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side [Portland's West Hills'] which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1½ miles wide, and current jentle. opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island [one of the small sandy islands prevelent in this stretch of the Columbia. Today the Willow Bar Islands on the east side of Sauvie Island lie across from Post Office Lake.] the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day






Clark, March 31, 1806 ...
we Set out this morning [from their camp at "Jolie Prairie", today the location of Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark ... also in this area are Wintler Park and Ryan Point] and proceeded untill 8 oClock when we landed on the N. Side opposit one large House of the Shah-ha-la Nation near this house at the time we passed on the 4th of November last was Situated 25 houses, 24 of them were built of Straw & Covered with bark as before mentioned. those [of] that description are all distroyed, the one built of wood only remains and is inhabited [vicinity of today's Portland International Airport]. ...     at 10 A. M we proceeded on accompanied by one Canoe and three men, one of them appeared to be a man of Some note, ...     passed up on the N. Side of White brant Island [Lady Island] near the upper point of Which a Small river falls in about 80 yards wide and at this time discharges a great quantity of water [Washougal River]. the nativs inform us that this river is very Short and heads in the range of mountains to the N E of its enterance into the Columbia the nativs haveing no name which we could learn for this little river we Call it Seal river [Washougal River] from the great number of those Animals which frequents its mouth. this river forks into two nearly equal branches about 1 mile up and each branch is crouded with rapids & falls. we proceeded on about 2 miles above the enterance of this Seacalf river [Washougal River] and imedeately opposit the upper mouth of the quick Sand river [Sandy River] we formed a Camp in a Small Prarie on the North Side of the Columbia [Cottonwood Beach] where we intend to delay one or two days to make Some Selestial observations, to examine quick sand river [Sandy River], and kill Some meat to last us through the Western Mountains which Commences a fiew miles above us [Cascade Mountain Range] and runs in a N. N. W. & S. S. E. derection. The three Indians encamped near us and visited our fire we entered into a kind of a Conversation by signs, of the Country and Situation of the rivers. they informed us that Seal river [Washougal River] headed in the mountains at no great distance. quick Sand river [Sandy River] was Short only headed in Mt. Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] which is in view and to which he pointed. this is a circumstance we did not expect as we had heretofore deemed a comsiderable river. Mount Hood bears East from this place and is distant from this place about 40 miles. this information if true will render it necessary to examine the river below on the South Side behind the image canoe [Hayden Island] and Wappato islands [Sauvie Island] for some river which must water the Country [Willamette River] weste of the western mountains to the Waters of California. The Columbia is at present on a Stand and we with dificuelty made 25 miles to day—.






Clark, April 2, 1806 ...
This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present encampment [Cottonwood Beach, Washougal, Washington] or Some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained as much dried meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the Chopunnish. ...     about this time Several Canoes of the nativs arived at our Camp [Cottonwood Beach] among others two from below with Eight men of the Shah-ha-la Nation those men informed us that they reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia near Some pine trees which they pointed to in the bottom South of the Dimond Island [Government Island], they Singled out two young men whome they informed us lited at the Falls of a large river [Willamette Falls] which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South Side Some Miles below us. we readily provailed on them to give us a Sketch of this river [Willamette River] which they drew on a Mat with a coal, it appeared that this river which they Call Mult-no'-mah discharged itself behind the Island we call the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], and as we had left this Island to the South both in decending & assending the river we had never Seen it. they informed us that it was a large river and runs a Considerable distance to the South between the Mountains. I deturmined to take a Small party and return to this river and examine its Size and Collect as much information of the nativs on it or near its enterance into the Columbia of its extent, the Country which it waters and the nativs who inhabit its banks &c. I took with me Six Men. Thompson J. Potts, Peter Crusat, P. Wiser, T. P. Howard, Jos. Whitehouse & my man York in a large Canoe, with an Indian whome I hired for a Sun glass to accompany me as a pilot. at half past 11 A. M. I Set out ...     at 8 miles passed a village on the South side [Chinook Landing and Blue Lake area] at this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond island [Government Island], and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without landing at this village. at 3 P. M. I landed at a large double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation. at this place we had Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall [November 4, 1805, in the vicinity of the Portland International Airport] and whome as I have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia [Celilo Falls].     on the bank at different places I observed Small Canoes which the women make use of to gather Wappato & roots in the Slashes. those Canoes are from 10 to 14 feet long and from 18 to 23 inches wide in the widest part tapering from the center to both ends in this form and about 9 inches deep and So light that a woman may with one hand haul them with ease, and they are Sufficient to Carry a woman on Some loading. I think 100 of those canoes were piled up and Scattered in different directions about in the Woods in the vecinity of this house, the pilot informed me that those Canoes were the property of the inhabitents of the Grand rapids who used them ocasionally to gather roots. ...

I left them [village near today's Portland International Airport] and proceeded on on the South Side [North Portland Harbor] of Image Canoe Island [Hayden Island] which I found to be two Islands hid from the opposit Side by one near the Center of the river. the lower point of the upper and the upper point of the lower cannot be Seen from the North Side of the Columbia on which we had passed both decending and ascending and had not observed the apperture between those islands. at the distance of 13 Miles below the last village [location of Portland International Airport] and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, Called Mult no mah River [Willamette River] so called by the nativs from a Nation who reside on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah [Willamette River] discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may be justly Said to be ¼ the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth [Belle Vue Point and Kelley Point, on opposite sides of the mouth of the Willamette, use to be islands] which hides the river from view from the Columbia.     from the enterance of this river [Willamette River] , I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East [Mount Hood, Oregon], Mt St. Helians [Mount St. Helens, Washington] a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians [Mount Adams, Washington, is east of Mount St. Helens]. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer [Mount Rainier, Washington] Nearly North. Soon after I arived at this river an old man passed down of the Clark a'mos Nation who are noumerous and reside on a branch of this river which receives it's waters from Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is emensely high and discharges itself into this river one day and a half up, this distance I State at 40 Miles. This nation inhabits 11 Villages their Dress and language is very Similar to the Quath-lah-poh-tle and other tribes on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island].



The Current of the Multnomar [Willamette River] is as jentle as that of the Columbia glides Smoothly with an eavin surface, and appears to be Sufficiently deep for the largest Ship. I attempted fathom it with a Cord of 5 fathom which was the only Cord I had, could not find bottom ? of the distance across. I proceeded up this river 10 miles from it's enterance into the Columbia to a large house on the N E. Side and Encamped near the house [downstream of Cathedral Park and the St. Johns Bridge, Portland, Oregon, near Portland's Terminal 4.], the flees being So noumerous in the house that we could not Sleep in it.



this is the house of the Cush-hooks Nation who reside at the falls of this river which the pilot informs me they make use of when they Come down to the Vally to gather Wappato. he also informs me that a number of other Smaller houses are Situated on two Bayous which make out on the S. E. Side a little below the house. this house appears to have been laterly abandoned by its inhabitants ...     The course and distance assending the Molt no mar R [Willamette River] from it's enterance into the Columbia at the lower point of the 3rd Image Canoe island.

[This area has changed during the past 200 years. Lewis and Clark called today's Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island". Their "3rd Image Canoe Island" however maybe in reference to the "three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth" (see journal entry above), two of the islands possibly were islands which are today's Belle Vue Point on Sauvie Island, and Pearcy Island which eventually became Kelley Point. Lewis and Clark's route map (Map#79 and Map#80, Moulton, Vol.1) shows a long "Image Canoe Island" with two small islands on the north side of "Image Canoe Island", and three small islands at the mouth of the "Multnomah R.". ]

S. 30° W. 2 Miles to the upper point of a Small Island [???] in the Middle of Moltnomar river [Willamette River]. thence

S. 10° W. 3 miles to a Sluce 80 yards wide [Multnomah Channel] which devides Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] from the Main Stard. Side Shore passing a Willow point on the Lard. Side [???].

S. 60° E. 3 miles to a large Indian house on the Lard Side below Some high pine land.

[Lewis and Clark's map plotted against an 1888 map of the area shows this location to be closer to 2 miles from the Multnomah Channel, just upstream from Portland's Terminal 4, and across from the community of Linnton.]

high bold Shore on the Starboard Side [Tualatin Mountains]. thence

S. 30° E 2 miles to a bend under the high lands on the Stard Side [St. Johns Bridge area located at the base of the Tualatin Mountains]

miles 10 passing a Larborad point [???].

thence the river bends to the East of S East as far as I could See [the stretch through Portland, Oregon]. at this place I think the wedth of the river may be Stated at 500 yards and Sufficiently deep for a Man of War or Ship of any burthern.



Whitehouse, April 2, 1806 ...
... The natives that were still with us, informed our Officers, that there was a large River [Willamette River], which emptied itself into the Columbia River, on the South side, below Sandy River [Sandy River],-     Captain Clark took me & Six more of our party, and one Indian as a guide, in Order to go down the Columbia River to take a view of that River [Willamette River], We proceeded on in a Canoe down the South side of the River, about 10 Miles.- & passed an Indian Village [Chinook Landing and Blue Lake area] of 21 houses lying on the same side of the River. This Village lay behind an Island, called Swans Island [part of today's Government Island complex. Lewis and Clark maps show two islands, one they called Diamond Island where they camped in November, and the other they called White Brant Island. Today the island nearest the locality of "Swans Island" would be McGuire Island.], & altho we had been on this Island, on our way in descending the River, none of our party had ever seen <it> this Village before. We proceeded on 9 Miles further down the River, & halted at a Village of Indians [locality of today's Portland International Airport]. ...     We proceeded on, on to the Mouth of this great River [Willamette River], which the Indians had given our Officers an account of.- The Mouth of this River came in behind an Island [Hayden Island] lying on the So. side of Columbia River; We arrived at the mouth of this river, about Sunset, & went up it, about 7 Miles, when we encamped at an old Indian lodge [near Terminal 4, south of today's Cathedral Park and the St. Johns Bridge]. The party <under Captain Clark,> resolved upon sleeping in this lodge, but on our entering it, we found the fleas in such great plenty, that we were forced to quit it. The great River is called by the natives the Mult-no-mack River [Willamette River]; it is 500 yards wide at its mouth; & continues that width, as high up, as where we ascended it to. The Indian guide that was with us, told us that it heads Near the head Waters of the California, & that there is a large Nation of Indians who reside some distance up that River <& > who live on a So. fork of this River & that Nation is called the Clark-a-mus Nation <& also another Nation> and that 30 Towns belong to them. Our guide also informed us, that there is another nation of Indians who reside a further distance up that River, by the name of the Cal-lap-no-wah nation; who he said were also very numerous; & that they reside up this River, where it is quite small.- The guide also mentioned that it is 20 days travel to the falls of this River [Willamette Falls], which falls is 40 feet <fall> perpendicular into that River & that the Tide water runs up to it,- & that the Natives have a very large Salmon fishery at that place. ...




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Center for Columbia River History website, 2004;    Gordon, Gordon, 2003, Deborah Butterfield, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers;    Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, Washington, website, 2006;    Portland International Airport website, 2004;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2008