Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Pillar Rock, Washington"
Includes ... Pillar Rock ... Pilot Rock ... "Taluaptea" ... Campsite of November 7, 1805 ... Campsite of November 25, 1805 ... Pillar Rock (the town) ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Penny Postcard, Pillar Rock, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Pillar Rock ("Pilot Rock"), ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Pilot Rock, Lower Columbia River". Published by the Portland Post Card Co, between 1907 and 1915. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2004, Pillar Rock, from downstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Pillar Rock as seen from downstream. Image taken April 9, 2004.


Pillar Rock ...
Pillar Rock is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 27, just off of Jim Crow Point. Three miles downstream was located the old fishing cannery at Altoona, with Harrington Point, the eastern end of Grays Bay to the west. At one time Pillar Rock stood 75 to 100 feet above the water (depending on the tide) before being flattened for installation of a navigation marker (Marker 17) and a light. Today Pillar Rock stands about 25 feet above the Columbia River surface. According to a Wahkiakum myth, the rock was named "Taluaptea", after a chief who displeased the spirits and was turned to stone.

Lewis and Clark and Pillar Rock ...
Lewis and Clark camped twice near Pillar Rock, once on November 7, 1805, when the men thought they had reached at the Pacific.

"... Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian, this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly ..." [Clark, November 7, 1805]

Lewis and Clark camped again at Pillar Rock on November 25, 1805, as they backtracked along the Washington shore to get to a narrow section of the Columbia where they could cross the river. They were headed to their winter camp at Fort Clatsop.


Campsite of November 7, 1805 ...
Lewis and Clark's campsite of November 7, 1805, was on the Washington shore across from Pillar Rock.

"... we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter, we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats ..." [Clark, November 7, 1805]

"... In the evening we came to a part of the river, where it is 5 miles broad. We went 34 miles and encamped on the south side at the mouth of a fine spring ..." [Gass, November 7, 1805]

"a foggy cool morning. we Set out eairly and proceeded on about 10 oClock we halted at an Indian Village where we bought Some fresh fish and Some roots. we proceeded on passed a number of Islands which are low and marshy. partly covred with willows &C — the hunters killed a Swan and Several geese to day and Camped on the Stard. Side at a Spring run" [Ordway, November 7, 1805]

"... We went about 35 Miles this day, & encamped at a Springs run, which lay on the South side of the River, opposite to which lay in the River a high round Rock, which had very much the resemlance of a Tower; Our hunters killed this day several Geese & Swans, which they brought to our Camp.— " [Whitehouse, November 7, 1805]

Lewis and Clark's previous campsite was near Cape Horn, Wahkiakum County, Washington. Their campsite of November 8 and 9, 1805, was near Portuguese Point, on the downstream side of Grays Bay.


"Ocian in view" ...
On November 7, 1805, Captain Clark wrote in his journal:

"... we are in view of the opening of the Ocian, which Creates great joy. ..." [Clark, November 7, 1805, first draft]

"... Ocian in view! O! the joy ..." [Clark, November 15, 1805, in distances for November 7]

In reality the men were really looking at the lower Columbia River estuary and Grays Bay, with another 20 miles to go before reaching the Pacific Ocean. Today a turnout at Pigeon Bluff along the road to Altoona and Pillar Rock contains a viewpoint overlooking Grays Bay, and an information kiosk honoring Clark's "Ocian in view! O! the joy".
[More]


Image, 2013, Sign, Altoona-Pillar Rock Road, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Altoona-Pillar Rock Road, Washington. Image taken October 15, 2013.
Image, 2004, Ocian in view, sign, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Ocian in view". From the road to Pillar Rock, near Pigeon Bluff (Mile Post 5). Image taken June 16, 2004.


Campsite of November 25, 1805 ...
Lewis and Clark's campsite of November 25, 1805, was on the Washington shore across from Pillar Rock, near their campsite of early in the month. The men had reached the Pacific and were now backtracking to a narrow section of the Columbia River to cross and proceed on to their winter camp at Fort Clatsop. The "Shallow Bay" is Grays Bay.

"... we Dined in the Shallow Bay on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock at Some distance in the river. ..." [Clark, November 25, 1805]

"The morning was pleasant, though cloudy, with a white frost. We loaded our canoes, and proceeded on: went about 9 miles and made an attempt to cross the river, but failed; we therefore kept up the north side round Shallow-bay, and encamped about four miles above it. " [Gass, November 25, 1805]

"a clear pleasant morning. we put the canoes in the River loaded up. our officers bought two more Sea otter Skins of the natives. we then Set out and Came about 9 miles up the River and attempted to cross over to the opposite Shore but the waves So high that the canoes were near filling. So we turned back to Shore again and kept along the Shore about 4 miles above Shallow bay and Camped" [Ordway, November 25, 1805]

"... We kept on about 4 Miles farther & encamped. The place we encamped at, was in the Wide part of the River which is called Shallow bay, from the Shoalness of the Water here.- This place lay on the No side of the Columbia River." [Whitehouse, November 25, 1805]

Lewis and Clark's previous campsite was at Station Camp, where they spent 10 days. Their campsite of November 26, 1805, was near today's Twilight Eagle Sanctuary, on the Oregon side of the Columbia within the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge.


Pillar Rock Legends ...
Charles Wilkes, August 19, 1841:

"... Pillar Rock is called by the Indians Taluaptea, after the name of a chief, who in bygone days lived at the falls of the Columbia, and who, having incurred the displeasure of their spirit, called Talapos, was turned into a rock, and placed where he would be washed by the waters of the great river. ..." ..."



An article by F.H. Saylor, 1900, IN: Oregon Native Son and Historical Magazine, Vol.II, No.6, November 1900.

"... Pillar Rock, situated down on the Columbia river, near Brookfield, at one time lived at Celilo, and was one of the ancient animal gods. He took a notion not to allow the salmon to pass that point, and in consequence the Indians living above where he did were unable to secure food, salmon in those days being their main article of sustenence. This went along for some time, but at last Coyote came traveling that way, putting a stop to the god's selfish and cruel actions. In explanation of his conduct, he claimed that he could not bear to see that salmon pass by him, and that he stopped them on that account and not to deprive the Indians of needed food. Coyote not being a believer in selfishness, tore down the obstruction made to prevent salmon from proceeding up the river, and then shouldered their builder and carried him down the river. On arriving at a point deemed suitable for his designs, he halted, turned his burden into stone and set him out in the river's channel; telling him that he should stand there forever, and that the salmon should sport and play around him when seeking the upper waters of the river, and he should not be able to prevent their progress. Selfishness brings about hardship to others, and often the downfall of those imbued with that characteristic. ..."



William Denison Lyman, 1909, The Columbia River, Its History, Its Myths, Its Scenery, Its Commerce: G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, p.398.

"... Passing a fishing village on the north bank called Brookfield, we notice a very curious rock, Pillar Rock, in the River a quarter of a mile from shore. It rises forty feet directly out of the water. We are told by one versed in Indian lore that this is the transformed body of a chief who tried to imitate the god Speelyei by wading across the River. For his presumption he was turned into a rock. ..."


Early Pillar Rock ...
Pillar Rock was first referred to as "a pillar rock" on October 26, 1792 by Lieutenant William Broughton, with the British Vancouver expedition, while exploring the lower Columbia River.

"... a remarkable pillar rock lies S. 79 W. about a mile from the shore, on the starboard or southern side of entrance into the river ..."

In 1805 Lewis and Clark camped twice across from Pillar Rock.

"... Immediately opposite our camp is a rock at the distance of a mile in the river, about twenty feet in diameter and fifty in height ..."

In the 1830s the Hudson's Bay Company began a fish-receiving station and saltery at Pillar Rock, the goods being then shipped to the "Sandwich Islands" (today known as Hawai'i).

The 1839 British Survey (Belcher) stated (as appearing in the U.S. "Coast Pilot", 1889):

"... the rock rises thirty feet above the sea from a depth of five fathoms. The summit is ten by five feet and is covered with bushes and grass. ..."

In 1841 Charles Wilkes of the U.S. Exploring Expedition used the name "Pillar Rock" in his text and on his 1841 map, however he gives two different dimensions for the rock.

"... The rock is twenty-five feet high, and only ten feet square at its top: it is composed of conglomerate or puddingstone, and is fast crumbling to pieces. I found great difficulty in ascending it. ... " [Wilkes, August 19, 1841]

"... the Pillar Rock, a square basaltic pillar, rising 62 feet above the water, situated on the northern point of the Upper Flats: ..." [Wilkes, 1841]

Pillar Rock in 1889 ...
From the 1889 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey's "Coast Pilot":

"Pillar Rock. -- This is a small, black, projecting pillar of conglomerate rock, thirty feet above the lowest water and thirty feet in diameter. It stands under the north shore of the river, three and seven-eigths miles above Yellow Bluffs and one mile below Jim Crow Point; it is eleven and a half miles from Astoria by the channel. It is three hundred and forty yards from the steep shore, and rises from a long twelve-feet shoal parallel with the shroe. Between this shoal and the shore there was a tree-fathom channel in 1868. The main channel formerly ran close under the south side of the shoal, but now it is a half a mile to the southward, the shoal having developed.

The Pillar Rock Salmon Cannery is located on the shore directly abreast of the Rock."


Pillar Rock Cannery ...
In 1877 John Temple Mason Harrington started the Pillar Rock Cannery at the old Hudson's Bay saltery at Pillar Rock on the northern shore of the Columbia River. The cannery was named after the prominent basalt column rising high above the river's surface, a feature which was featured prominently on the cannery's labels. The Pillar Rock Cannery packed salmon from 1877 to 1947. With the decline of the salmon industry the cannery switched to crab and other fish.
[More on Columbia River canneries]

Image, McGowan Shad Label, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
LABEL: Columbia River Salmon, Spring Pack, Pillar Rock, Washington. Pillar Rock Packing, Pillar Rock, Wahkiakum Co., Wash., Everding & Farrell, Agents, Portland, Oregon, 15 1/2 oz. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


Cannery History ...
"... two labels ... are from the Pillar Rock Packing Company. Located along the rugged Washington shoreline, the firm borrowed its name from the bastion of basalt rising some 25-feet above the river’s surface about 1000-feet off the cannery. The site, 22-miles upstream from the river’s mouth, had been used by the venerable Hudson Bay Company as a salmon saltery-one of its many far-flung export enterprises-and before that as a Native American encampment. In 1877, a salmon cannery took shape there.

The older of the two is the “Boss Brand” label, dating from the 1890s. The bewhiskered gent sporting the bowler is John T.M. Harrington, founder of the Pillar Rock Packing Company. Called “Red” by his friends, Harrington was a hulking Irishman who began fishing the rich waters of the lower Columbia River in the 1860s. He watched as canneries multiplied and canners made fortunes. In 1877, with the backing of his brokers in Portland, Sylvester Farrell and Richard Everding, Harrington built a cannery on the site of the old saltery. The venture paid handsomely.

John Harrington became so identified as the “Boss” of Pillar Rock that his image became a brand. In 1907, the “Laird of Pillar Rock” purchased a country estate in Northumberland County, England, where in 1910 he took up residence and lived out his final years.

The other label, which far outlived its originator, featured the iconic rock that stood off the cannery’s wharf. It dates from the first decade of the 1900s. On the label you will notice the can’s net weight, a requirement after the passage of the federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Both the “Boss Brand” and “Pillar Rock Brand” labels are representative of the labels produced around 1900, though far from the most colorful examples from that period.

The Pillar Rock brand doesn’t end here, however.

In 1930, the New England Fish Company (NEFCO) purchased the cannery at Pillar Rock. Despite diminishing runs, the new firm continued to pack salmon at the plant until the 1940s. The cannery languished and was eventually sold, but NEFCO kept the Pillar Rock brand. The firm folded in 1980, but the brand lived on. Ocean Beauty-an international seafood company based in Seattle-still cans wild Alaskan salmon under the Pillar Rock brand and markets it in the Midwest and southern reaches of the United States. The label still features sailboats circling the basaltic column in the rich waters of the Columbia River."

Source:   Northwest Coast Magazine, online website (2011), "A Tale of Two Labels".



"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Pillar Rock, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Pillar Rock ("Pilot Rock"), ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Pilot Rock, Lower Columbia River". Caption on the back reads: "Columbia River is one of the big waterways of the world. Rising in the Selkirk Mountains of British Columbia, it flows through the states of Washington and Oregon, draining an immense area. This matchless scenery along the entire length is wild and imposing, reaching the climax of picturesque grandeur when it cuts the Cascade Mountain Range, forming what is known as the Columbia River Gorge, a veritable wonderland. Towering peaks, pinnacles, cathedral shaped rocks and innumerable water falls line both shores for many miles, making it the mecca of all tourists." Published by the Portland Post Card Co, between 1907 and 1915. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 7, 1805, first draft ...
a Cloudy fogey morning, a little rain. Set out at 8 oClock proceeded on

N. 82° W. 2 1/2 miles on the Std Side under a high hill Steep assent

N. 45° W. 1 1/2 miles and the high Land on the Std. Side Steep assent

N. 60° W. 1 mile on the Std. Sid high hill a thick fog. Can't See across the Riv opposit the lower pt. of an Isd. [Wallace Island]

West 2 miles on the Stard Side under a hill high and rockey [Eagle Cliff and Cape Horn of Wahkiakum County]

N W. 1 mile to the head of an Island [Puget Island] Close under the Stard Side, Sept. by a narrow Chanel [Cathlamet Channel] 2 Canoes of Indians met us, and returnd. with us, a Island in the middle of the river [Puget Island], we followed those Inds. on the North Side of the Island thro a narrow Chanel [Cathlamet Channel] to their village on the Stard. Side [Cathlamet, Washington area] of 4 houses, ...

N. 10° W. 15 miles to a white tree in a Stard. bend under a high hill passed Several marshey Isld. on the Stard. Side opposit to which & on the Stard. Side is a village of 4 houses [Cathlamet, Washington] passed Several marshey Islands on the Lard sd. an Indian village on one of those Islands. ... The rivr. verry wide. ... to an old village of 7 houses under the hill Stard. Side [Skamakowa, Washington]. Several Slashey Isld. on Stard Side, we called and bought a Dog & Some fish.

S W. 3 miles to a point of high land on the Stard. Side passed a Small Island on Stard. Side the head of a large low marshy Island on the middle river about from 5 to 7 miles wide S. 62° W 5 miles <lard side> to a point Stard. Side a Deep bend to the Stard Side under a high mountain. pine

S. 70° W 3 miles to a point on the Stard Side [Jim Crow Point] high mountains Some high mountains on the Lard Side off the river — we en-camped on the Stard Side under a high hill Steep and mountanious we with dificulty found leavel rocks Sufficent to lie on, ...     The rain Continued untill 9 oClock moderately. we are in view of the opening of the Ocian, which Creates great joy.     a remarkable rock of about 50 feet high and about 20 feet Diameter is situated opposit our Camp about ˝ a mile from Shore     Several marshey Islands towards the Lard Side [part of the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge] the Shape of them I can't See as the river is wide and day foggey



Clark, November 7, 1805 ...
A cloudy foggey morning Some rain. we Set out [from their camp at Cape Horn, Wahkiakum County, Washington] early proceeded under the Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river [typical for this area in the winter], two Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands [Puget Island and the Hunting Islands] , on a narrow chanl. of the river [Cathlamet Channel] through which we passed to the Village of 4 Houses, [Cathlamet, Washington area] ....

Those people call themselves War-ci-â-cum ...

after delaying at this village one hour [Cathlamet, Washington area] and a half we Set out piloted by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands [Puget Island and the Hunting Islands],     without a pilot, a large marshey Island [Tenasillahe Island] near the middle of the river near which Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish &c. to Sell, and had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side [near Clifton, Oregon], a high mountn. to the S W. about 20 miles [Saddle Mountain], the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we landed at a village of the Same nation [Skamokawa, Washington]. This village is at the foot of the high hills on the Stard Side back of 2 Small Islands [today, Price Island lies between Skamokawa and the Columbia River] it contains 7 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, ... opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey leave the river on the Lard Side [downstream of Aldrich Point] below which the river widens into a kind of Bay [Cathlamet Bay] & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the tides [today this is the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Lower Columbia River Estuary] - we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village [Skamokawa] under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill [ridge of Jim Crow Point] on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock [Pillar Rock] Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter,     we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats rain Continud. moderately all day & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned, our Small Canoe which got Seperated in the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side [part of the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge].

Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian [Clark's famous "Ocian in view! O! the Joy"], this great Pacific Octean [Pacific Ocean] which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly

we made 34 miles to day as Computed



Clark, November 7, 1805, in distances, November 15, 1805 ...
S. 70° W. 3 Miles to a point on the Stard Side [Jim Crow Point] passg. under a high mountanious Countrey and Encamped on the rocks Stard. Side opposit a rock [Pillar Rock] Situated ˝ a mile in the river 50 feet high & 20 Diamuter Some high mountains to the S W. on the top of one [Saddle Mountain] is Snow. Ocian in view! O! the joy.


Gass, November 7, 1805 ...
We set out again early in a foggy morning; went about 6 miles and came to an Indian camp, where we got some fresh fish and dogs. ...     We remained here about 2 hours and then proceeded on. At this place the river is about 3 miles wide, with a number of small islands, and the country broken. In the evening we came to a part of the river, where it is 5 miles broad. We went 34 miles and encamped on the south side at the mouth of a fine spring.


Ordway, November 7, 1805 ...
a foggy cool morning. we Set out eairly and proceeded on about 10 oClock we halted at an Indian Village where we bought Some fresh fish and Some roots. we proceeded on passed a number of Islands which are low and marshy. partly covred with willows &C — the hunters killed a Swan and Several geese to day and Camped on the Stard. Side at a Spring run —


Whitehouse, November 7, 1805 ...
A cool foggy morning. We set out early, & proceeded on 'till about 10 o'Clock A. M. when we arrived at an Indian Village, consisting of 4 cabbins [Cathlamet, Washington, vicinity] which were inhabited by the Natives. We halted at this place a short timber; & purchased from the Indians, some fish, roots, & a number of dogs. We continued on our Voyage, and passed a number of Islands, which lay low. These Islands were Marshy & were covered with Grass, & had Water laying in different parts of them. Towards evening, we passed another Indian Village, which lay on the North side of the River [Skamokawa, Washington, vicinity], where we stopped a short time, & purchased from the Natives some fresh fish, Roots &ca. ...     The Indians both at this, & the other Indian village that we passed this day, made signs to us that there were vessells lying at the Mouth of this River. Some of them signed to us that the Vessells were gone away from it. ...    We continued on, & saw some high rough hills, which was covered with pine Trees, high clifts of rocks & some Springs of water.—

We went about 35 Miles this day, & encamped at a Springs run, which lay on the South side of the River, opposite to which lay in the River a high round Rock, which had very much the resemlance of a Tower [Pillar Rock]; Our hunters killed this day several Geese & Swans, which they brought to our Camp.—






Clark, November 25, 1805, first draft ...
a fine day     Several Indians Come up from below, we loaded and Set out up the river, and proceeded on to the Shallow Bay [Grays Bay], landed to dine, The Swells too high to cross the river, agreeabley to our wish which is to examine if the game Can be precured Sufficent for us to winter on that Side, ater dinner which was on Drid pounded fish we proceeded on up on the North Side to near the place of our Encampment of the 7th Instant [Pillar Rock] and encamped after night     The evening cloudy wind of to day Generally from the E S. E, Saw from near of last Campment Mount Ranier [in error, Clark meant Mount St. Helens. He corrects this in is final version.] bearing [blank]


Clark, November 25, 1805 ...
The Wind being high rendered it impossible for us to Cross the river from our Camp, we deturmind to proceed on up where it was narrow, we Set out early accompanied by 7 Clât Sops for a fiew miles, they left us and Crossed the river through emence high waves; we Dined in the Shallow Bay [Grays Bay] on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock at Some distance in the river [Pillar Rock] . evening Cloudy the Winds of to day is generally E. S. E which was a verry favourable point for us as the highlands kept it from us Mt. St. Hilians [Mount St. Helens] Can be Seen from the mouth of this river.



Gass, November 25, 1805 ...
The morning was pleasant, though cloudy, with a white frost. We loaded our canoes, and proceeded on: went about 9 miles and made an attempt to cross the river, but failed; we therefore kept up the north side round Shallow-bay [Grays Bay], and encamped about four miles above it.


Ordway, November 25, 1805 ...
a clear pleasant morning.     we put the canoes in the River loaded up. our officers bought two more Sea otter Skins of the natives.     we then Set out and Came about 9 miles up the River and attempted to cross over to the opposite Shore but the waves So high that the canoes were near filling. So we turned back to Shore again and kept along the Shore about 4 miles above Shallow bay and Camped


Whitehouse, November 25, 1805 ...
We had a clear pleasant morning. Our Officers had concluded on crossing the River, & endeavor to find out a suitable place, for our Winter Quarters. Our officers purchased from the Natives 2 more Sea Otter Skins. We loaded our Canoes, and set off in order to go up the River, & to cross over the River where it was narrower.— We proceeded on up the River about 9 Miles, where we attempted to cross it, but the Waves ran so high that we found it impracticable. We kept on about 4 Miles farther & encamped. The place we encamped at, was in the Wide part of the River which is called Shallow bay [Grays Bay], from the Shoalness of the Water here.— This place lay on the No side of the Columbia River.




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: Hay, K.G., 2004, The Lewis and Clark Columbia River Water Trail, Timber Press, Portland; Kirk, R., and Alexander, C., 1990, Exploring Washington's Past, A Road Guide to History, Univeristy of Washington Press, Seattle; Lyman, W.D., 1909, The Columbia River, Its History, Its Myths, Its Scenery, Its Commerce, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York; NOAA Office of Coast Surveys website, 2005; Northwest Coast Magazine, online website (2011), "A Tale of Two Labels"; Wilkes, C., 1861, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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January 2011