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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Mount St. Helens, Washington"
Includes ... Mount St. Helens ... "Louwala-Clough" ... "Loowit" ...
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens, and Longview, Washington. Image taken February 11, 2004.


Mount St. Helens ...
Mount St. Helens is a large stratovolcano (elevation 8,364 feet) located in Washington State 50 miles northeast of Portland, Oregon and 34 miles due west of another Washington State volcano Mount Adams. The first documented observation of Mount St. Helens by Europeans was by Captain George Vancouver of the British Royal Navy on May 19, 1792, as he was charting the inlets of Puget Sound at Point Lawton, near present-day Seattle. He named the peak on October 20, 1792 as it came into view as ship passed the mouth of the Columbia River. He named it in honor of a fellow countryman, Alleyne Fitzherbert, who held the title Baron St. Helens and who was at the time the British Ambassador to Spain. Vancouver also named three other volcanoes in the Cascades - Mount Baker and Mount Rainier in Washington State, and Mount Hood in Oregon - for British naval officers Early Indian names for the peak were "Louwala-Clough", or "smoking mountain".

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens and steam plume, click to enlarge
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Early morning, Mount St. Helens with steam plume, from Fishers Landing, Washington. Image taken January 3, 2005.


"Smoking Mountain" ...
Among the many Indian names for Mount St. Helens are "Louwala-Clough", "La-wa-la-clough", or "Lawala Clough" ("smoking mountain"), "Low-W-Not-Thlat" ("Throwing up smoke"), "Low-W-Lat_Klah" ("The Smoking Mountain"), and "Loowit" or "Loo-wit". According to legends, Mount St. Helens was once a beautiful maiden named "Loowit". When two sons of the Great Spirit "Sahale" fell in love with her, she could not choose between them. The two braves, "Wyeast" and "Klickitat" (often seen as "Pahto") fought over her, burying villages and forests in the process. Sahale was furious. He smote the three lovers and erected a mighty mountain peak where each fell. Because Loowit was beautiful, her mountain (Mount St. Helens) was a beautiful, symmetrical cone of dazzling white. Wyeast (Mount Hood) lifts his head in pride, but Klickitat (Mount Adams) wept to see the beautiful maiden wrapped in snow, so he bends his head as he gazes on St. Helens. The U.S. Board of Geographic Names made official the name "Mount Saint Helens" in 1902. It is generally abbreviated as "Mount St. Helens".

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Bradbury Slough, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Bradbury Slough, Oregon. Crims Island is in the middleground. Image taken February 21, 2005.


Eruptive History ...
From the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory Website (2004):

"... Ancestral Mount St. Helens began to grow before the last major glaciation of the Ice Age had ended about 10,000 years ago. The oldest ash deposits were erupted at least 40,000 years ago onto an eroded surface of still older volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Intermittent volcanism continued after the glaciers disappeared, and nine main pulses of pre-1980 volcanic activity have been recognized. These pulses lasted from about 5,000 years to less than 100 years each and were separated by dormant intervals of about 15,000 years to only 200 years. A forerunner of Spirit Lake was born about 3,500 years ago, or possibly earlier, when eruption debris formed a natural dam across the valley of the North Fork of the Toutle River.

The most recent of the pre-1980 eruptive activity began in A.D. 1800 with an explosive eruption, followed by several additional minor explosions and extrusions of lava, and ended with the formation of the Goat Rocks lava dome by 1857. Mount St. Helens is the youngest of the major Cascade volcanoes, in the sense that its visible cone was entirely formed during the past 2,200 years, well after the melting of the last of the Ice Age glaciers about 10,000 years ago.

Mount St. Helens' smooth, symmetrical slopes are little affected by erosion as compared with its older, more glacially scarred neighbors - Mount Rainier and Mount Adams in Washington, and Mount Hood in Oregon. The local Indians and early settlers in the then sparsely populated region witnessed the occasional violent outbursts of Mount St. Helens. The volcano was particularly restless in the mid-19th century, when it was intermittently active for at least a 26-year span from 1831 to 1857. Some scientists suspect that Mount St. Helens also was active sporadically during the three decades before 1831, including a major explosive eruption in 1800. Although minor steam explosions may have occurred in 1898, 1903, and 1921, the mountain gave little or no evidence of being a volcanic hazard for more than a century after 1857. Consequently, the majority of 20th-century residents and visitors thought of Mount St. Helens not as a menace, but as a serene, beautiful mountain playground teeming with wildlife and available for leisure activities throughout the year. At the base of the volcano's northern flank, Spirit Lake, with its clear, refreshing water and wooded shores, was especially popular as a recreational area for hiking, camping, fishing, swimming and boating. The tranquility of the Mount St. Helens region was shattered in the spring of 1980, however, when the volcano stirred from its long repose, shook, swelled, and exploded back to life. ..." [Tilling, et.al., 1990]

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Fisher Island Slough, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Fisher Island Slough, Washington. Image taken February 21, 2005.


1980 Eruption ...
On May 18, 1980 the volcano erupted. The force of the eruption sent ash 12 miles into the air and destroyed 1,300 feet of the summit, leaving behind a one-mile-wide horseshoe-shaped crater opening to the north. Massive lahars (mudflows) tore down the rivers radiating from the volcano's flanks, destroying 185 miles of roadways, 27 bridges, and nearly 200 homes. Fifty-seven people lost their lives. Five smaller explosive episodes occurred during the summer and fall of 1980. Each produced eruption columns 8 to 9 miles above sea level and pyroclastic flows down the volcano's north flank. The episodes in June, August, and October also erupted lava in the crater to form a dome. Beginning with the October 1980 eruption (the June and August domes were each destroyed by subsequent eruptions) and ending with an October 1986 eruption, 17 eruptive episodes built a new lava dome in the crater. This dome, officially called the "Lava Dome", reached a height of 876 feet above the crater floor. Today this dome is referred to as the 1980-86 dome or "old dome", to distinguish it from the new dome-building activity which began in 2004.

Eruption 2004 and 2005 ...

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens eruption plume, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens eruption plume, from Fishers Landing, Washington. Taken at approximately 5:30 pm. Image taken March 8, 2005.
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens with ash and steam, sunset view, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens with ash and steam, from Fishers Landing, Washington. Image taken October 13, 2004.
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens with ash, from Rocky Butte, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens with ash, from Rocky Butte, Oregon. Image taken October 14, 2004.
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens with ash, from Larch Mountain, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens with ash, from Larch Mountain, Oregon. Image taken October 11, 2004.
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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A steaming Mount St. Helens with Vancouver, Washington. Image taken December 18, 2004.


Lewis and Clark and Five Volcanoes ...
From the mouth of the Willamette River, Lewis and Clark spotted five volcanoes. Mount Jefferson, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Rainier, and Mount Adams.
[More]

"... from the Columbia at the entrance of the Multnomah river Mount Jefferson bears S. E. this is a noble mountain. I think equally as high as Mount St. Helines but it's distance being much greater than that of the latter, so great a portion of it dose not appear above the range of mountains which lie betwen boath those stupendious mountains and this point of view. like mount St. Heleans it's figure is a regular cone and is covered with eternal snow. M. St. Heleans from the same point boar N [blank], Mount Hood due East, and Mount Ranier nearly North. there is also a very high humped mountain a little to the East of Mount St. Heleans which appears to lie in the same chain with those conic pointed mountains before mentioned ..." [Lewis, April 6, 1806]

Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens, as seen from Blurock Landing, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing lies across the river from the mouth of the Willamette River. Image taken February 11, 2004.


"... M. St. Heleans from the same point boar N ..." [Lewis, April 6, 1806]


Throughout History

1792, William Broughton ...
On October 29, 1792, William Broughton of the British Captain George Vancouver Expedition, viewed Mount St. Helens from the Post Office Lake area. Warrior Point is located on the northern tip of Sauvie Island.

"... The next morning they again proceeded up the river and had a distant view of Mt. St. Helens lying N.42E. In sounding across the river, whose width was there about a quarter of a mile, from three to twelve fathoms water was found. ... In this situation the latitude was observed to be 45 degrees 41 minutes, longitude 237 degrees, 20 minutes; when Mt. St. Helens was seen lying from hence N.38E. or a distance from Point Warrior of about eight miles. [Vancouver, October 28, 1792]

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens and Post Office Lake, click to enlarge
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Post Office Lake and Mount St. Helens. Image taken, January 30, 2005.


1805, Lewis and Clark ...
In 1805 Captain Clark writes about viewing Mount St. Helens, while in the vicinity of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge and Sauvie Island.

"... <Encamped on the Lard. Side. Mt. Ranier> Mount Hellen bears N. 25° E about 80 miles, this is the mountain we Saw near the foks of this river. it is emensely high and covered with Snow, riseing in a kind of Cone perhaps the highest pinecal from the common leavel in america [Clark, November 4, 1805, first draft]

"... we had a full view of Mt. Helien which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles— This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe ..." [Clark, November 4, 1805]

Clark first assumed he was viewing Mount Rainier, but corrected himself in his first draft. Clark was also in error about seeing Mount St. Helens at the "Muscle Shell rapid" (now the area of the McNary Dam) as at that spot he actually viewed Mount Adams. All three peaks are within Washington State.


Image, 2003, Mount St. Helens from Shillapoo, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens from Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Washington. Shillapoo Wildlife Area is adjacent to the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken July 4, 2003.
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Sauvie Island, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens from Sauvie Island. Image taken, November 20, 2005.


1814, David Thompson ...
In 1814 David Thompson wrote about Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier, as he viewed them from the vicinity of Wallace Island:

"... Mt. St. Helena presented a conspicuous and romantic prospect -- an immense cone enveloped in snow, rising from a level country, the base very broad, tapering up to a point without any rugged irregularity. Mt. Rainier [read Mt. Tacoma] is seen at the same time, also covered with snow, but does not form so regular and conspicuous an object as the other, being more rugged, uneven, and flat on top. ..." [David Thompson, January 11, 1814]

Image, 2004, Wallace Island with Mount St. Helens, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens and Wallace Island, Oregon. View from Jones Beach, Oregon. Image taken November 20, 2004.


October 1842 ...
Excerpts from: Rev. Gustavus Hines, 1851, "Oregon: Its History, Condition and Prospects: Containing a Description of the Geography, Climate and Productions, With Personal Adventures among the Indians, During a Residence of the Author on the Plains Bordering the Pacific, While Connected with The Oregon Mission: Embracing Extended Notes of A Voyage Around the World.", Geo. H. Derby and Co., Buffalo.

"... These highest points are covered with eternal snow, and presenting their rounded tops to the heavens, appear like so many magnificent domes, to adorn the temple of nature. From one elevation near the Wallamette river, and at the distance of from sixty to one hundred and fifty miles, the writer has counted eight of these snow-topped mountains, without moving from his tracks. Surely, no scenery can be more enchanting. One of these mountains, St. Helen’s, requires a more particular account, from a phenomenon which it presented a few years ago. In the month of October, 1842, it was discovered, all at once, to be covered with a dense cloud of smoke, which continued to enlarge, and move off, in dense masses, to the eastward, and filling the heavens in that direction, presented an appearance like that occasioned by a tremendous conflagration, viewed at a vast distance. When the first volumes of smoke had passed away, it could be distinctly seen, from various parts of the country, that an eruption had taken place on the north side of St. Helen’s, a little below the summit, and from the smoke that continued to issue from the chasm or carter, it was pronounced to be a volcano in active operation. When the explosion took place, the wind was north-west, and on the same day, and extending from thirty to fifty miles to the south-east, there fell showers of ashes, or dust, which covered the ground in some places, so as to admit of its being collected in quantities. This last phenomenon has been of frequent occurrence, and has led many to suppose that volcanic eruptions are not uncommon in this country. ..."

November 23, 1842, and November 13, 1843 ...
From the U.S. "Coast Survey" of 1862:

"... When off the entrance [of the Columbia River] in fine, clear weather, the beautiful snow peak of Mount St. Helens shows over the lowest part of the land inside, and apparently in the middle of the river valley. It is very regular in outline, and presents a pyramidal appearance, having a base equal to either side. It is over 75 miles eastward from the entrance to the river, and attains an estimated elevation of 13,500 feet. It is volcanic, and occasionally discharges volumes of smoke.

On the 23d of November, 1842, during an eruption, the ashes from it fell over the Dalles of the Columbia like a light fall of snow. On the 13th of November, 1843, St. Helens and Rainier were both in action. Humboldt erroneously states that this volcano is always smoking from the summit crater. ..."

November 23, 1842, and November 13, 1843, Brevet Captain J.C. Fremont ...
In 1843 Captain Fremont with the U.S. Exploring Expedition traversed the eastern part of the Columbia River. From Fremont's Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-44, published 1845:

"... Wherever we came in contact with the rocks of these mountains, we found them volcanic, which is probably the character of the range; and at the time, two of the great snowy cones, Mount Regnier and St. Helens, were in action. On the 23d of the proceding November, St. Helens had scattered its ashes, like a light fall of snow, over the Dalles of the Columbia, 50 miles distant. A specimen of these ashes was given to me by Mr. Brewer, one of the clergymen at the Dalles. [Fremont, November 13, 1843] ..."

"Mount Regnier" is Mount Rainier and "the Dalles of the Columbia" is today an Oregon city called The Dalles.


1847, Paul Kane, "Wanderings of an Artist" ...
From Paul Kane's Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, London, 1859:

"... March 26th (1847) -- When we arrived at the mouth of the Kattlepoutal River, twenty-six miles from Fort Vancouver, I stopped to make a sketch of the volcano, Mount St. Helen's, distant, I suppose, about thirty or forty miles. This mountain has never been visited by either Whites or Indians; the latter assert that it is inhabited by a race of beings of a different species, who are cannibals, and whom they hold in great dread; they also say that there is a lake at its base with a very extraordinary kind of fish in it, with a head more resembling that of a bear than any other animal. These superstitions are taken from the statement of a man who, they say, went to the mountain with another, and escaped the fate of his companion, who was eaten by the "skoocooms," or evil genii. I offered a considerable bribe to any Indian could not find one hardy enough to venture. It is of very great height, and being eternally covered with snow, is seen at a great distance. There was not a cloud visible in the sky at the time I commenced my sketch, and not a breath of air was perceptible: suddenly a stream of white smoke shot up from the crater of the mountain, and hovered a short time over its summit; it then settled down like a cap. This shape it retained for about an hour and a-half, and then gradually disappeared.

About three years before this the mountain was in a violent state of irruption for three or four days, and threw up burning stones and lava to an immense height, which ran in burning torrents down its snow-clad sides. ...

March 30th -- We landed at the Cowlitz farm, which belongs to the Hudson's Bay Company. Large quantities of wheat are raised at this place. I had a fine view of Mount St. Helen's throwing up a long column of dark smoke into the clear blue sky. ..."

Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington. Image taken January 2, 2005.
Image, 2005, Steaming Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington, click to enlarge
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Steaming Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington. Image taken January 2, 2005.


1858 "Coast Pilot" ...
From the Superintendant of the Coast Survey:
"When off the entrance, in fine, clear weather, the beautiful snow peak of Mount St. Helens shows over the lowest part of the land inside, apparently in the middle of the river valley. It is very regular in outline, and presents a pyramidal appearance, having a base equal to either side. It is over seventy-five miles to the eastward of the entrance to the river, and attains an estimated elevation of 12,000 feet. It is volcanic, and occasionally discharges volumes of smoke."

1869 Coast Pilot ...
From the United States Coast Survey's Coast Pilot:
"When off the entrance, in fine, clear weather, the beautiful snowy peak of Mount St. Helens shows over the lowest part of the land inside, apparently in the middle of the river valley. It is very regular in outline, and presents a pyramidal appearance, having a base equal to either side. It is over seventy-five miles to the eastward of the entrance to the river, and its height is estimated at thirteen thousand five hundred feet. It is volcanic, and occasionally discharges volumes of smoke."

1886, Emma H. Adams
Excerpt from: Emma H. Adams, 1888, "To and Fro, Up and Down, in Southern California, Oregon, and Washington Territory, with Sketches in Arizona, New Mexico, and British Columbia": Cranston & Stowe Publishers, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, p.292, as she traveled from San Francisco to Portland, as their steamer was waiting to cross the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River.

"The next object of general interest was Mount St. Helens, a splendid solitary snow cone, piercing the atmosphere, eighty miles away, in Washington Territory, and yet plainly visible from the deck of the steamer. Upon some of the passengers, who saw the majestic snow cone for the first time, the effect was peculiar. Statue-like, far enough away to be shrouded in mystery, the mountain seemed a Mikado of the old regime, holding absolute sway over the thousands of lesser summits, lifting their heads cloudward all about."

Image, 2005, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens from Megler Rest Area, click to enlarge
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Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Megler Rest Area. Image taken November 9, 2005.
Image, 2004, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, from Point Ellice, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, from Point Ellice, Washington. Image taken June 16, 2004.

"... Mt. St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river. ..."
[Clark, November 25, 1805]


1899 "History of the Pacific Northwest Oregon and Washington" ...
An 1899 publication about the Pacific Northwest states Mount Hood, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens were all mentioned having erupted in historical time. Mount Hood is located in Oregon and can be seen from quite a few places along the Columbia River. Mount Rainier is located in Washington State north of Mount St. Helens, and can be seen from the lower Columbia area near Longview, Washington and downstream near Wallace Island.

"... The great peaks are in only a dormant state of volcanic energy, and show by their uneasy heaving from time to time the presence of the earth-giant chained beneath. Hood, St. Helens and Ranier, in particular, have had outbursts frequently since the settlement of the country. In 1835 and 1842, St. Helens had tremendous explosions. A river of stiffened lava, fifteen miles long and half a mile wide, is now found on the south side of the mountain; and in it are yet to be seen the twisted and half-consumed tree trunks at some time overwhelmed. ..."


Mount St. Helens Images ...

Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens, Washington, and the Columbia River Valley Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Larch Mountain, Oregon:
View from the top of Larch Mountain, Oregon. Larch Mountain is visible from many places along the Columbia River. Views of five Cascade Range Volcanoes can be seen from Larch Mountain.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, October 11, 2004.
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Images, 2005, Eruption plume Mount St. Helens eruption plume from Fishers Landing, Washington:
Image from Fishers Landing at top of hill, Vancouver, Washington.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, March 8, 2005.
Images, 2005, Eruption plume Mount St. Helens eruption plume from Fishers Landing, Washington:
Image from Fishers Landing at top of hill, Vancouver, Washington.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, March 8, 2005.
Images, 2005, Eruption plume Mount St. Helens eruption plume from Fishers Landing, Washington:
Image from Fishers Landing at top of hill, Vancouver, Washington. The office of the Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO) is on the left.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, March 8, 2005.
Images, 2004, Mount St. Helens sunset Mount St. Helens, Washington, with steam and ash drifting west, at sunset:
Image from Fishers Landing at top of hill, Vancouver, Washington.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, October 13, 2004
Images, 2005, Mount St. Helens, early morning Mount St. Helens and steam plume:
Image from Fishers Landing at top of hill, Vancouver, Washington.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, January 3, 2005.
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Images, 2004, Ashy Mount St. Helens from Rocky Butte Mount St. Helens, Washington, with ash drifting south, towards Rocky Butte:
Image taken from Rocky Butte, Oregon. The Columbia River can be seen between the stonework pillars.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, October 14, 2004
Images, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Rocky Butte Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Rocky Butte, Oregon:
Columbia River, Government Island, and the Interstate 205 Bridge can be seen between the stonework pillars.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, June 15, 2005
Images, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Rocky Butte Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Rocky Butte, Oregon:
Columbia River, Government Island, and the Interstate 205 Bridge can be seen from Rocky Butte. The Portland International Airport is off to the left.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, June 15, 2005
Images, 2005, View north from Rocky Butte View north from Rocky Butte, Oregon:
Mount St. Helens, the Columbia River, Government Island, and the Interstate 205 Bridge can be seen looking north from Rocky Butte, Oregon.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, June 15, 2005
Image, 2004, Vancouver, Washington, Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens:
Vancouver, Washington, Mount St. Helens, and the Interstate-5 Bridge, as seen from Hayden Island, just downstream of the Interstate 5 Bridge.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, March 29, 2004.
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Image, 2004, Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens, Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens:
Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens, as seen from Hayden Island, just downstream of the Interstate 5 Bridge.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, March 29, 2004.
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Image, 2004, Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens, Vancouver, Washington, and a steaming Mount St. Helens:
Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens, as seen from Hayden Island, just downstream of the Interstate 5 Bridge.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, December 18, 2004.
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Image, 2004, Vancouver Lake with Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Vancouver Lake, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, February 11, 2004.
Image, 2005, Vancouver Lake with Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens and Vancouver Lake, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, July 3, 2005.
Image, 2003, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, July 4, 2003.
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, February 11, 2004.
Image, 2003, Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Blurock Landing, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, February 11, 2004.
Image, 2003, Mount St. Helens, Washington Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Shillapoo Wildlife Area:
Mount St. Helens, Washington, as viewed from the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Shillapoo area borders the Columbia River just south of Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge.
Photo by Lyn Topinka, July 4, 2003.
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Post Office Lake, Ridgefield NWR Mount St. Helens and Post Office Lake, Ridgefield NWR:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, January 30, 2005.
Image, 2005, Sauvie Island and Mount Hood Mount St. Helens (left) and Mount Adams (right) with Sauvie Island Bridge:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2005.
Image, 2005, Sauvie Island and Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington (slightly steaming), as seen from Sauvie Island, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 8, 2005.
Image, 2005, Sauvie Island and Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Sauvie Island, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2005.
Image, 2005, Sauvie Island and Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Sauvie Island, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2005.
Image, 2005, Bicyclists, Mount St. Helens, Sauvie Island Bicyclists, Sauvie Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2005.
Image, 2003, Looking at Bachelor Island with Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, with Bachelor Island in the foreground:
Two kayaks on the Columbia River, across from Bachelor Island, Washington. Mount St. Helens is in the background. Image taken from Sauvie Island, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, September 13, 2003.
Image, 2009, Mount St. Helens from Bachelor Island Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Bachelor Island, Washington:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, March 13, 2009.
Image, 2012, Mount St. Helens from Scappoose Bottoms, Oregon Mount St. Helens from Scappoose Bottoms, Oregon:
Photo by Lyn Topinka, January 13, 2012
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Image, 2005, Building Painting, Woodland, Washington Mount St. Helens Building Painting, Woodland, Washington:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, April 27, 2005.
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Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Scappoose Bay, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Scappoose Bay, Oregon:.
View from just off of U.S. Highway 30, two miles south of St. Helens, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 8, 2005.
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Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Scappoose Bay, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Scappoose Bay, Oregon:.
View from just off of U.S. Highway 30, two miles south of St. Helens, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 8, 2005.
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Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Scappoose Bay, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Scappoose Bay, Oregon:.
View from just off of U.S. Highway 30, two miles south of St. Helens, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, August 29, 2004.
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Image, 2004, Looking towards mouth of Cowlitz River, with Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, and the mouth of the Cowlitz River:
Looking towards mouth of the Cowlitz River (difficult to discern) with Mount St. Helens, as seen from Rainier, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2004.
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Image, 2007, Mount St. Helens and Rainier, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, and docks at Rainier, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 17, 2007.
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Image, 2007, Mount St. Helens and Rainier, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, and docks at Rainier, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 17, 2007.
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Image, 2003, Mount St. Helens and the Lewis and Clark Bridge Mount St. Helens, Washington, and the Lewis and Clark Bridge:
Mount St. Helens, Washington, with the city of Longview and the Lewis and Clark Bridge in the foreground. Image taken from Oregon Highway-30, just downstream of Rainier, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 11, 2004.
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Image, 2003, Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Longview, Washington:
Mount St. Helens, Washington, with the city of Longview and the Lewis and Clark Bridge in the foreground. Image taken from Oregon Highway-30, just downstream of Rainier, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 11, 2004.
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Image, 2007, Lewis and Clark Bridge, with Mount St. Helens Lewis and Clark Bridge, with Mount St. Helens:
Mount St. Helens and the Lewis and Clark Bridge, as seen from Oregon Highway 30, just downstream of Rainier, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, January 30, 2007.
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Image, 2005, Steaming Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington Steaming Mount St. Helens and Longview, Washington:
Mount St. Helens and the Lewis and Clark Bridge, as seen from Oregon Highway 30, just downstream of Rainier, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, January 2, 2005.
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Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Fisher Island Slough Mount St. Helens from Fisher Island Slough:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2005.
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Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Willow Grove Beach Mount St. Helens from Willow Grove Beach:
Steaming Mount St. Helens, from Willow Grove, looking back at Fisher Island Slough.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, January 2, 2005.
RM*
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Mayger, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Mayger, Oregon:
Old fish station on the right.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2005.
RM*
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Mayger, Oregon Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Mayger, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2005.
RM*
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Bradbury Slough Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Bradbury Slough, Oregon:
Crims Island is in the middleground.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2005.
RM*
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Bradbury Slough Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Bradbury Slough, Oregon:
Crims Island is on the left.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2005.
RM*
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens from Mill Creek, Washington, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Mill Creek, Washington:
View from near Oak Point, just downstream Mill Creek, Washington, looking upstream at Mount St. Helens and Gull Island (left). Bunker Hill is on the left.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, June 16, 2004.
RM54*
Image, 2005, Mount St. Helens from Mill Creek, Washington, Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Mill Creek, Washington:
View from near Oak Point, just downstream Mill Creek, Washington, looking upstream at Mount St. Helens and Bunker Hill.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, July 28, 2005.
RM54*
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens from County Line Park Mount St. Helens, Washington, from County Line Park, Washington:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, June 16, 2004.
RM51.5*
Image, 2004, Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington:
Downstream tip of Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington, in the background. View is from Jones Beach, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2004.
RM48*
Image, 2004, Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington:
Downstream tip of Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington, in the background. View is from Jones Beach, Oregon.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 20, 2004.
RM48*
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens and Wallace Island Mount St. Helens, Washington, with Wallace Island, Oregon:
Downstream tip of Wallace Island, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens, Washington, in the background.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2004.
RM48*
Image, 2004, Jones Beach, Oregon, with Mount St. Helens Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Jones Beach, Oregon:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, February 21, 2004.
RM46.5*
Image, 2004, Mount St. Helens from Megler Rest Area Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Megler Rest Area:
Mount St. Helens, Washington, is just visible in the haze from this upstream view from Megler Rest Area. Mount Adams is whitish-blur on the left and is difficult to see in the haze.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, April 9, 2004.
RM14*
Image, 2005, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens from Megler Rest Area Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Megler Rest Area:
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, November 9, 2005.
RM15*
Image, 2004, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens from Point Ellice Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, Washington, from Point Ellice:
View from near the base of the Astoria-Megler Bridge, Washington side.
Photo by: Lyn Topinka, June 16, 2004.
RM15*


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 19, 1805 ...
I assended a high clift above 200 feet above the water [overlooking McNary Dam] from the top of which is a leavel plain extending up the river and off for a great extent, at this place the Countrey becomes low on each Side of the river, and affords a pros of the river and countrey below for great extent both to the right and left; from this place I descovered a high mountain of emence hight covered with Snow [Mount Adams], this must be one of the mountains laid down by Vancouver, as Seen from the mouth of the Columbia River, from the Course which it bears which is West I take it to be Mt. St. Helens [in error, Mount Adams], destant 156 miles     a range of mountains in the Derection crossing, a conacal mountain S.W. toped with Snow [Mount Hood]     This rapid [Umatilla Rapids] I observed as I passed opposit to it to be verry bad interseped with high rock and Small rockey Islands, here I observed banks of Muscle Shells banked up in the river in Several places. I Delayed at the foot of the rapid about 2 hours for the Canoes which I could See met with much dificuelty in passing down the rapid on the oposit Side     maney places the men were obliged to get into the water and haul the canoes over Sholes ---






Clark, November 4, 1805, first draft ...
<Encamped on the Lard. Side. Mt. Ranier> Mount Hellen [Mount St. Helens, Washington] bears N. 25° E about 80 miles, this is the mountain we Saw near the foks of this river. it is emensely high and covered with Snow, riseing in a kind of Cone perhaps the highest pinecal from the common leavel in america passed a village of 4 hs. on the Stard Side at 2 mils, one at 3 mls.


Clark, November 4, 1805 ...
at 3 miles lower, and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river [Sandy River] passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side [Lewis and Clark are not aware that this is Sauvie Island], near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien [Mount St. Helens, Washington] which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid [Umatilla Rapids] on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe [Clark is mistaken, the mountain he saw from the Umatilla Rapids area - now the location of McNary Dam - was Mount Adams] - about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side [Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge]



Gass, November 4, 1805 ...
We went 28 miles and encamped on the north side. [Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] In the evening we saw Mount Rainy on the same side [in error, the men saw Mount St. Helens]. It is a handsome point of a mountain, with little or no timber on it, very high, and a considerable distance off this place.



Ordway, November 4, 1805 ...
we discovred a high round mountain Some distance back from the River on the Stard Side which is called mount rainy [in error, Mount St. Helens]


Whitehouse, November 4, 1805, first draft ...
we discovered a high round mountain Some dis[tance] back from the River on Stard. Side which is called mount Rainy [in error, the men saw Mount St. Helens]. we are not yet out of Site of Mount Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] which is covd. with Snow.



Whitehouse, November 4, 1805 ...
We discovered a mountain, which lay on the North side of the River, some distance back from it. It appeared to be round, and is called Mount Rainey [mistaken, Mount St. Helens, Washington]. We are not yet out of sight of Mount Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon], which from this place appears to be covered with Snow.






Clark, November 25, 1805, first draft ...
a fine day Several Indians Come up from below, we loaded and Set out up the river, and proceeded on to the Shallow Bay, [Grays Bay] landed to dine, The Swells too high to cross the river, agreeabley to our wish which is to examine if the game Can be precured Sufficent for us to winter on that Side, ater dinner which was on Drid pounded fish we proceeded on up on the North Side to near the place of our Encampment of the 7th Instant and encamped after night [Pillar Rock] The evening cloudy wind of to day Generally from the E S. E, Saw from near of last Campment Mount Ranier bearing [blank] [in error, Clark meant Mount St. Helens].



Clark, November 25, 1805 ...
The Wind being high rendered it impossible for us to Cross the river from our Camp, we deturmind to proceed on up where it was narrow, we Set out early accompanied by 7 Clât Sops for a fiew miles, they left us and Crossed the river through emence high waves; we Dined in the Shallow Bay [Grays Bay] on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock [Pillar Rock] at Some distance in the river. evening Cloudy the Winds of to day is generally E. S. E which was a verry favourable point for us as the highlands kept it from us Mt. St. Hilians [Mount St. Helens] Can be Seen from the mouth of this river.






Lewis, March 30, 1806 ...
we had a view of mount St. helines [Mount St. Helens, Washington] and Mount Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon]. the 1st is the most noble looking object of it's kind in nature. it's figure is a regular cone. both these mountains are perfectly covered with snow; at least the parts of them which are visible



Ordway, March 30, 1806 ...
we Set out eairly and proceed on the River Still riseing & is now So high that the tide has no effect to be perceived at this time considerable of drift wood floating down the River. Saw 2 large villages on a large long Island which is named wa pa-toe Isld. [Sauvie Island] & is about 25 miles long, partly timbered & partly prarie & soil rich. a number of the Savages followed us Some distance with their canoes I must give these Savages as well as those on the coast the praise of makeing the neatest and handsomest lightest best formed canoes I ever Saw & are the best hands to work them. Saw mount rainey [in error, they saw Mount St. Helens and not Mount Rainier] and Mount Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] which is verry white with Snow &C about Sunset we Camped at a handsom prarie ["Jolie Prairie"] & Groves of oak timber &C— the country is lower & more Smooth than below.—



Whitehouse, March 30, 1806 ...
We saw this day Mount Rainey [in error, they saw Mount St. Helens and not Mount Rainier] & Mount hood [Mount Hood, Oregon]; they appeared white & was covered with Snow






Clark, April 2, 1806 ...
... at the distance of 13 Miles below the last village [locality of Portland International Airport] and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, Called Mult no mah River [Willamette River] so called by the nativs from a Nation who reside on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah [Willamette River] discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may be justly Said to be Ľ the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth which hides the river from view from the Columbia.     from the enterance of this river [Willamette River] , I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East [Mount Hood, Oregon], Mt St. Helians [Mount St. Helens, Washington] a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians [Mount Adams, Washington, is east of Mount St. Helens]. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer [Mount Rainier, Washington] Nearly North. ...





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: Adams, E.H., 1888, To and Fro, Up and Down, in Southern California, Oregon, and Washington Territory, with Sketches in Arizona, New Mexico, and British Columbia: Cranston & Stowe, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis; Early Canadana Online, Library and Archives of Canada website, 2005; NOAA Office of Coast Surveys website, 2004; USGenWeb Project website, 2005, "History of the Pacific Northwest Oregon and Washington 1889"; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, 1980, "Mount St. Helens"; U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory website, 2004, 2006, "Mount St. Helens"; U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) website, 2006.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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January 2012