Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Mill Plain, Vancouver Washington"
Includes ... Mill Plain ... Mill Plain Bar ... Hudson's Bay Company ... Missoula Floods ...
Image, 1846, Covington Map, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Covington Map", 1846, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Richard Covington, 1846, Fort Vancouver and "Fort Plain", "Mill Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", and "Third Plain". Original with the Washington State History Museum, printed in "The Columbian", June 10, 2017, "Plains Explained" by Tom Vogt.


Mill Plain ...
(to come)

Mill Plain and the Hudson's Bay Company ...
(to come)

Mill Plain and the Missoula Floods ...
(to come)


Vancouver Basin, Mill Plain Bar ...
According to Evarts (2006):

"Mill Plain [east Vancouver, Washington] is the surface of a huge bar deposited by the floods in the lee of Prune Hill at Camas ... These deposits, as thick as 40 meters [130 feet] or more, were apparently deposited by multiple floods (Waitt, 1996). Similar gravel accumulated as a fan west of Proebstel, where floodwaters discharged northwestward through the trough now occupied by Lacamas Lake (Trimble, 1963; Waitt, 1994). Before the floods, Lacamas Creek probably flowed westward to Burnt Bridge Creek but was diverted sharply southeastward to Lacamas Lake by the fan near Proebstel. Well logs indicate that the gravel grades northward to predominantly sand near Hockinson." [Evarts, 2006]

The Vancouver and Orchards Geologic Map Quadrangle (O'Connor, et.al., 2016), the Camas Quadrangle Geologic Map (Evarts and O'Connor, 2008) and the Washougal Quadrangle Geologic Map (Evarts, et.al., 2013) describe the composition and depth of the Missoula flood gravel deposits.

Vancouver and Orchards Quadrangles:
"Gravel facies -- Unconsolidated, gray, stratified, bouldery to cobbly gravel and sand, deposited in thick sheets over older basin-fill deposits on upland areas flanking the Columbia River; organized into prominent, large bar-and-channel complexes on Mill Plain and Fourth Plains. On uplands of Mill Plain and Fourth Plains in the eastern area [map extends to NE 164th], several quarries show more than 59 feet of crudely stratified and poorly sorted coarse gravel and sand, commonly deposited in tall (locally >16 feet), steeply dipping (as much as 35 degrees) foresets; former exposures to west showed similar features. In east part of map area, many rounded boulders exceed 3 feet diameter. Many active and historic quarry exposures in upland areas reveal fining westward, and away, from the Columbia River. On Mill Plain, north-dipping foresets indicate transport by northward flow out of the Columbia valley. Sweeping unconformities visible in large, fresh exposures likely separate deposits of individual floods. Texturally and compositionally variable; most clasts derived from Columbia River Basalt Group but includes blocks of Troutdale Formation and Pliocene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, all probably entrained in the western Columbia River Gorge. On uplands, deposits overlie older basin-fill deposis, but cataclysmic-flood gravel bars step down into the Columbia River valley and locally thicken to the south and west, perhaps to as much as 200 feet thick along I-5 through Vancouver. West of Vancouver, a possibly inset bench may have been deposited by later, smaller floods. Beneath Holocene Columbia River floodplain deposits, cataclysmic-flood gravel coats and partly fills the late-glacial valley, a valley bottom incised at least 230 feet below sea level." [O'Connor, et.al., 2016, Scientific Investigations Map 3357]

Camas Quadrangle:
"Gravel facies -- Unconsolidated, gray, stratified, bouldery to cobbly gravel and sand deposited in thick sheets over older basin-fill deposits on upland areas flanking the Columbia River; organzied into prominent large bar and channel complexes on Mill Plain in the northwest part of map area [beginning at 164th] and much of east Portland, Fairview, and Troutdale south of the river. ... Locally, as along southern edge of the historic Columbia River floodplain and in the Lacamas Lake trough, Missoula-flood deposits form thin (<2 meters) and discontinuous mantle on older basin-fill and bedrock units. Numerous active and historic quarry exposures in upland areas reveal more than 15 meters [50 feet] of crudely stratified and poorly sorted coarse gravel and sand, commonly deposited in tall (locally >5 meters [16 feet]), steeply dipping (up to 35 degrees) foresets. Deposits generally fine westward and away from the Columbia River; in some places, contain immense boulders, some exceeding 4 meters [13 feet] in long diameter, particularly near Troutdale and along southwest side of Prune Hill. Texturally and compositionally variable; most clasts derived from Columbia River Basalt Group but includes blocks of Troutdale Formation and Pliocene-Quaternary Cascadian basalt, all probably entrained in the western Columbia River Gorge; locally, such as southwest of Prune Hill, consists of large, angular-tosubangular blocks eroded from nearby valley walls. Sweeping unconformities visible in large fresh exposures likely reflect multiple flood events. Unit includes local sand accumulations below 200 feet elevation ...." [Evarts and O'Connor, 2008, Scientific Investigations Map 3017]

Washougal Quadrangle:
"Gravel facies -- Unconsolidated, gray, stratified, bouldery to cobbly gravel and sand organized into prominent large bar along lower reach of Washougal River. Base not exposed, but bars reach heights of 20 meters [65 feet] above enveloping Columbai River floodplain. Well logs west of map area indicated total thickness locally as great as 68 meters [223 feet]. Texturally and compositionally variable; most clasts derived from Columbia River Basalt Group but also includes blocks of Troutdale formation and Pliocene-Quaternary Cascadian basalt, all probably entrained in western Columbia River Gorge. Likely deposited during multiple flood events between 20 and 15 thousand years ago. Finer sand facies probably deposited by late floods confined to Columbia River valley. ..." [Evarts and others, 2013, Scientific Investigations Map 3257]

Image, 2018, LIDAR, Mill Plain Pendant Bar, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Missoula Floods "Mill Plain Pendant Bar", as shown by LIDAR imagery. Original map: W.J. Burns and D.E. Coe, 2012, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, IMS-36 (Interpretive Map Series).


Views ...

Image, 2016, Mill Plain Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
View of Mill Plain Road looking east, Vancouver, Washington. View from inside moving car on the Interstate 5 exit. Image taken August 12, 2016.
Image, 2015, Mill Plain Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mill Plain Road, heading east, Vancouver, Washington. View from inside moving car. Image taken August 9, 2015.
Image, 2015, David Douglas Park, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
David Douglas Park, Vancouver, Washington. West end of the "Mill Plain". Image taken August 9, 2015.
Image, 2017, Mill Plain exit off I-205, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mill Plain exit off of Interstate 205, Vancouver, Washington. Heading south. Image taken July 4, 2017.


Sand and Gravel Pits

  • SE 1st Street, south side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...
  • SE 1st Street, north side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...
  • SE 18th Street, south side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...


SE 1st Street, south side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...

Image, 2018, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sand and gravel operations, Missoula Flood deposits, Vancouver, Washington. Sand and Gravel pit across from the "Cadman, Heidelberg Cement Group, English Plant" location on SE 1st St. between NE 162nd and NE 192nd Ave. Image taken June 11, 2018.
Image, 2018, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sand and gravel operations, Missoula Flood deposits, Vancouver, Washington. Sand and Gravel pit across from the "Cadman, Heidelberg Cement Group, English Plant" location on SE 1st St. between NE 162nd and NE 192nd Ave. Image taken June 11, 2018.

SE 1st Street, north side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...

Image, 2018, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sand and gravel operations, Missoula Flood deposits, Vancouver, Washington. English Pit operations, sign today says "Cadman, Heidelberg Cement Group, English Plant", located on SE 1st St. between NE 162nd and NE 192nd Ave. Image taken June 11, 2018.

SE 18th Street, south side, between 162nd and 192nd Avenue ...

Image, 2018, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sand and gravel operations, Missoula Flood deposits, Vancouver, Washington. Sand and gravel operations located on SE 18th St. between NE 162nd and NE 192nd Ave. Image taken July 13, 2018.
Image, 2018, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sand and gravel operations, Missoula Flood deposits, Vancouver, Washington. Sand and gravel operations located on SE 18th St. between NE 162nd and NE 192nd Ave. Image taken July 13, 2018.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, ...
 




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:
  • Burns, W.J., and Coe, D.E., 2012, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, IMS-36 (Interpretive Map Series);
  • Evarts, R.C., 2006, "Geologic Map of the Lacamas Creek Quadrangle, Clark County, Washington", U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2924;
  • Evarts, R.C., and O'Connor, J.E., 2008, "Geologic Map of the Camas Quadrangle, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon", U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3017;
  • Evarts, R.C., O'Connor, J.E., and Tolan, T.L., 2013, "Geologic Map of the Washougal Quadrangle, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon", U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3257;
  • O'Connor, J.E., Cannon, C.M., Mangano, J.F., and Evarts, R.C., 2016, Geologic Map of the Vancouver and Orchards Quadrangles and Parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor Quadrangles, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3357;


All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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Images are NOT to be downloaded from this website.
July 2018