Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Maryhill Vicinity, Washington"
Includes ... Maryhill ... Maryhill townsite ... "Columbus" ... Maryhill Museum ... Maryhill State Park ... Samuel Hill ... Sam Hill Country ... Stonehenge Memorial ... Maryill Loops Road ... Maryhill-Biggs Ferry ... "Maryhill Station" ... Sam Hill Memorial Bridge ... National Register of Historic Places ... North Bank Road ...
Image, 2004, Sam Hill Country sign, Maryhill, Washington, click to enlarge
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"Sam Hill Country" sign, Maryhill, Washington Image taken April 24, 2004.


Maryhill ...
Maryhill, Maryhill Museum, Maryhill Loops, and the Stonehenge Memorial were all created by visionary Samuel Hill, a prominent Oregon and Washington entepreneur. While his Quaker community of Maryhill never came to fruition, his home "castle" built on a hill and named "Maryhill" for his daughter Mary, remains one of the most unique art museums in Washington State.

"Sam Hill Country" ...
Sam Hill Country

"In 1908 Samuel Hill (1857-1931) bought 7,000 acres on these slopes. He planned a Quaker farming colony, surveyed a 34-block townsite and built a church, hotel, store, offices, garage and shops. His engineers built ten miles of experimental roads; as Washington's first rural paved roads they proved Hill's zeal as a promoter of highways. Three miles to the west he began construction of an old-wold chateau, which in 1940 was completed as the Maryhill Museum of Art. In 1918-1929 Hill constructed the Stonehenge replica, America's first World War I memorial, on the original site of his hotel. Fire eventually destroyed the buildings of the never-occupied townsite, leaving only Stonehenge, roads and stonework, and the Museum as monuments to the vision and energy of this public-spirited American."


Source:    "Sam Hill Country" information sign near Maryhill, visited April 2004.

Samuel Hill ...
Samuel Hill was a prominent Oregon and Washington entepreneur, a promotor of improving nation-wide road systems, and who helped develop the Historic Columbia River Highway. Hill not only built the Maryhill Museum and the Stonehenge Memorial, but also he built the Blaine Peace Arch, located along Interstate 5 where it crosses into Canada.

Lewis and Clark and Maryhill area ...
Lewis and Clark first pass by the Maryhill area on October 22, 1805, but make no mention of the hills, now known as the Columbia Hills, bordering the north bank of the Columbia.

In April 1806 on their return back up the Columbia, Lewis and Clark and most of their men travelled by horse along the high ridge on the Washington side. They passed through the Maryhill vicinity on April 22. Captain Clark climbed a "high hill" (possibly Haystack Butte, three miles downstream of Maryhill) and described the scene across the river to the south.

"... dureing the time the front of the party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South from Mt. Hood as far as I could See. I also discovered the top of Mt. Jefferson which is Covered with Snow and is S 10o W. Mt. Hood is S. 30o W.     the range of mountains are Covered with timber and also Mt Hood to a sertain hite. The range of Mountains has Snow on them. I also discovered some timbered land in a S. derection from me, Short of the mountains. Clarks river which mouthes imedeately opposit to me forks at about 18 or 20 miles, the West fork runs to the Mt Hood and the main branch Runs from S.E. ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]

"Clarks river" is the Deschutes River, and the "range of Mountains" is the Cascade Range.


Image, 2003, Mount Hood as seen from Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge
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Mount Hood as seen from Maryhill Museum. Image taken July 5, 2003.


Maryhill Vicinity and the Missoula Floods ...
Maryhill Museum sits on a bench lying 800 feet above the Columbia, on the north side of the river. This bench is a 14.5-million-year-old Priest Rapids lava flow, a member of the Wanapum Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). This bench, in some areas nearly one mile wide, was carved by the massive power of the Missoula Floods.
[More]

Image, 2005, Maryhill Museum, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Museum and the Columbia Hills, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. Image taken September 24, 2005.


Early History ...
The first community in the Maryhill area was called "Columbus" or "Columbus Landing" until the name-change in 1909 to "Maryhill". This community was primarily a wood-hauling town where stern-wheelers stopped to take on fuel. Wood was cut on the north slopes of the Columbia Hills and hauled to the Columbia River shoreline by wagons pulled by oxen. Early maps show this community as "Columbus P.O." or "Columbus".

"... The town of Maryhill, originally named Columbus, was first settled in 1862 by Amos Stark. Others followed Stark in the ensuing years to herd cattle or supply cordwood for the steamers along the Columbia River. In a short time, the town became the major fueling point along the river for steamers of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. The trade between the cordwood dealers and the steamers transformed the river town into a busy place. By 1862, fifteen families had settled in Columbus and the town became known as "the only place with any business pretensions in the county." ..." ["RootsWeb.com", 2006, Klickitat County, The Goldendale Sentinel", August 8, 1991]

The first ferry to make regular crossings of the Columbia was established in 1868 by William Hicenbotham.

In 1908 entrepreneur Samuel Hill bought 7,000 acres on the Washington banks of the Columbia River at the location of the Stonehenge Memorial, where he planned to build a Quaker farming community (The Maryhill Museum website 2004 says both "6,000 acres" and "over 6,000 acres"). Hill surveyed in a 34-block townsite and built a church, hotel, store, offices, garage, and shops, plus ten miles of paved roads, the first in rural Washington. Samuel Hill's townsite was never occupied and eventually destroyed by fire.


Early Maps ...

Image, 1897 Map, Lyle to Rufus, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
HISTORICAL MAP, 1897, "Post Route Map of the State of Washington", showing the Columbia River from Lyle, Washington, to Rufus, Oregon. The community of Columbia became Maryhill in 1909. Original Map courtesy University of Washington Libraries, 2006.


Maryhill in 1940 ...
From the Oregon State Archives "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon":

"... Right on US 97 to the Maryhill ferry, 0.4 m. (fare $1; service as needed). From the north bank ferry landing in Washington, US 97 continues to the junction with US 830, 1.2 m.; L. here 2.9 m. on US 830 to MARYHILL CASTLE, also built by Samuel Hill. It is a three story rectangular structure of concrete, set on a bluff 800 feet above the river. Though the building was dedicated by Queen Marie of Romania in 1926, it was not opened to visitors until 1937. Queen Marie gave to the museum a life size portrait of her daughter, a desk, chairs, and other pieces of furniture. Hill lavished a fortune on the estate but never made it his home. However, he left a bequest of $1,200,000 for completing and maintaining it as a museum. In a crypt repose the owner's ashes, commemorated by a tablet bearing the inscription: "Samuel Hill amid Nature's unrest, he sought rest." ..."



Maryhill, etc.

  • Columbia Hills ...
  • Maryhill Fruit Stand ...
  • Maryhill Loops ...
  • Maryhill Museum ...
  • Maryhill State Park ...
  • Maryhill Station ...
  • Maryhill to Biggs Ferry ...
  • Maryhill Treaty Fishing Access Site ...
  • Miller Island ...
  • North Bank Road ...
  • Sam Hill Memorial Bridge ...
  • Stonehenge Memorial ...


Columbia Hills ...
On the north side of the Maryhill Museum, the Columbia Hills rise to an elevation of nearly 2,800 feet and overlook the Columbia River valley below.
[More]

Image, 2012, Columbia Hills downstream from Maryhill, Washington, click to enlarge
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Haystack Butte (Columbia Hills) downstream of Maryhill area, Washington. View from Oregon Interstate 84. Image taken June 6, 2012.


Maryhill Fruit Stand ...
The Maryhill Fruit Stand, with it's unique and colorful fruit display, lies on the west side of Highway 97 at the Washington end of the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge.

Image, 2011, Maryhill Fruit Stand, Washington, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Fruit Stand, Maryhill, Washington. View from moving car. Image taken October 15, 2011.
Image, 2012, Maryhill Fruit Stand, Washington, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Fruit Stand, Maryhill, Washington. View from moving car. Image taken June 6, 2012.


Maryhill Loops ...
The "Maryhill Loops Road" was built in 1913 by Sam Hill as a forerunner to Samuel C. Lancaster's Columbia River Highway, through the Columbia River Gorge. The Loops Road is 3.6 mile-long and was the first paved road in Pacific Northwest. It winds through the Klickitat Hills just north of the Stonehenge Memorial near the junction of Washington State Highway 14 and U.S. Highway 97. Seven types of experimental road construction were employed to build Loops Road, including liquid asphalt shipped from California. The road was completely refurbished in 1998 and is open to bicyclists and pedestrians.

Penny Postcard, Maryhill Loops, Maryhill, Washington
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Penny Postcard: Maryhill Loops, Maryhill, Washington.
Penny Postcard, Real Photo, Divided Back, "Maryhill Loops, Maryhill, Washington, near Maryhill Museum". Card #21. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2004, Maryhill Loops, Washington, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Loops, Washington. Image taken April 24, 2004.


Maryhill Museum ...
In 1914, three miles west of his planned community of Maryhill at Columbia River Mile (RM) 205, entrepreneur Sam Hill began construction of a "castle" for his daughter, Mary, on a hill, and named it "Maryhill". Originally designed as a family home, the building was completed in 1940 as the Maryhill Museum of Art. Upstream is the "Sam Hill Memorial Bridge" and Stonehenge Memorial, and downstream is Haystack Butte and the Deschutes River. The Maryhill Museum of Fine Arts was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 (Building - #74001966).
[More]

Image, 2003, Maryhill Museum, Washington, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Museum, Washington. Image taken July 5, 2003.
Image, 2005, Maryhill Museum, Washington, with Mount Hood, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Museum, Washington, and Mount Hood, Oregon. Image taken May 24, 2005.


Maryhill State Park ...
Maryhill State Park is a 99-acre camping park located 12 miles south of Goldendale, Washington, and one mile north of the Columbia River on U.S. Highway 97, just north of the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge. The park was acquired by lease from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1972 (at no cost) and has 4,700 feet of Columbia River waterfront. A full-scale partial replica of Stonehenge is located one mile north and east on Washington State Highway 14, and the Maryhill Museum lies four miles west.

Image, 2012, Maryhill State Park, Washington, click to enlarge
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Maryhill State Park, Washington. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2012, Maryhill, Washington, as seen from Washington State Route 14, click to enlarge
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Maryhill Vicinity, Washington, as seen from Washington State Route 14. View of Maryhill vicinity, Maryhill State Park, the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge, Biggs, Oregon, and Mount Hood in the distance. Image taken May 29, 2012.
Image, 2005, Maryhill State Park, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Maryhill State Park, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. Image taken September 24, 2005.


Maryhill Station in 1941 ...
From "The New Washington: A Guide to the Evergreen State, Federal Writers' Project, 1941":

"... MARYHILL STATION, is the depot for the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railroad. A Ferry ($1 per car, passengers included) operates from Maryhill to Biggs, Oregon, on the opposite shore of the Columbia, where US 97 continues southward. ..."



Maryhill to Biggs Ferry ...
Maryhill was once the northern end of a ferry route which was first established in 1868 by William Hicenbotham. The ferry went from Maryhill, Washington, to Biggs, Oregon. In 1962 the Maryhill to Biggs Ferry was replaced by the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge.
[More]


Maryhill Treaty Fishing Access Site, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission ...
All four Columbia River treaty tribes enjoy fishing rights along the Columbia from the Bonneville to McNary dams. This 147-mile stretch of the river is called Zone 6. The Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC) operates and maintains 31 fishing sites (2015, Note: the website map only shows 30 sites) in Zone 6. These sites were set aside by Congress to provide fishing locations to Indian fishers whose traditional fishing grounds were inundated behind dams.

"For fisheries management purposes, the 292-mile stretch of the Columbia River that creates the border between Washington and Oregon is divided into six zones. Zones 1-5 are between the mouth of the river and Bonneville Dam, a distance of 145 miles. Oregon and Washington manage the commercial fisheries that occur in these zones. Zone 6 is an exclusive treaty Indian commercial fishing area. This exclusion is for commercial fishing only. Non-commercial sports fishers may still fish in this stretch of the river." [Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission website, 2016]

The Zone 6 sites include 19 Treaty Fishing Access sites (Bonneville, Wyeth, White Salmon, Stanley Rock, Lyle, Dallesport, Celilo, Maryhill, Rufus, Preacher's Eddy, North Shore, LePage Park, Pasture Point, Roosevelt Park, Pine Creek, Threemile Canyon, Alderdale, Crow Butte, and Faler Road), five "In-lieu" sites (Cascade Locks, Wind River, Cooks, Underwood, and Lone Pine), two "Shared-use" sites (Avery and Sundale Park, for both Tribal use and Public use), and four "Unimproved" sites with no services (Goodnoe, Rock Creek, Moonay, and Aldercreek).



Miller Island ...
[More]

Image, 2005, Miller Island, as seen from Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge
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Upstream end of Miller Island, as seen from Maryhill Museum, Washington. Image taken May 24, 2005.


North Bank Road ...
The Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railroad, competitors in the transcontinental business, launched the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway in 1905 and built a line along the north side of the Columbia River. This line was known as "The North Bank Railroad", "The North Bank Road", "Columbia River Scenic Route", and "The Northwests Own Railway". The tracks were started in October 1905 and completed in February 1908, with a celebration being held on March 11th at Sheridan Point upstream of the Fort Rains Blockhouse location. On March 19th, regular passenger service between Vancouver and Pasco was begun. The journey took eight hours.

STATIONS ON THE NORTH BANK
Between Vancouver and Pasco There Will Be 43 Stops.

"LYLE, Wash., July 24, 1907. -- (Special.) -- Chief Surgeon Irvine, of the North Bank Road says there will be 43 stations about five miles apart on the line between Vancouver and Pasco. From west to east the stations will appear on the new map as Image, Fisher, Bourne, Seal, Cruzatt, Butler, Cascades, Stevenson, Ash, Collins, Cooks, Hood, Bingen, Villa, Lyle, Skadat, Grandalles, Spedis, Avery, Timms, Columbus (Maryhill), Cliffs, Towal, Harbin, Fountain, Sanda, Roosevelt, Moonax, McCredie, Carley, Luzon, Sage, Patterson, Coolide, Gravel, Plymouth, Colbia, Mottinger, Tomar, Yellepit, Hoover and Finley. He also reports the track is being blasted as fast as laid."


Source:    "Morning Oregonian", July 25, 1907, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2019.

[More]



Sam Hill Memorial Bridge ...
The "Sam Hill Memorial Bridge", U.S. Highway 97, is also known as the "Biggs Rapid Bridge". It connects Biggs Junction, Oregon, with Maryhill, Washington, replacing the ferry which once crossed there.
[More]

Image, 2004, Highway 97 Bridge from Biggs Junction, Oregon, to Maryhill, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sam Hill Memorial Bridge (U.S. Highway 97, "Biggs Rapid Bridge"). View from Biggs Junction, Oregon. Image taken September 26, 2004.
Image, 2003, Biggs Bridge and upstream Columbia River as seen from Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge
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Upstream - The Sam Hill Memorial Bridge ("Biggs Bridge") and Columbia River. Image taken July 5, 2003.


Stonehenge Memorial ...
Between 1918 and 1929, Sam Hill built a replica of England's Stonehenge, as America's first World War I memorial, at the location of his townsite.
[More]

Image, 2004, Stonehenge, click to enlarge
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Stonehenge, Maryhill, Washington. Image taken April 24, 2004.
Image, 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from inside Washington's Stonehenge Memorial, click to enlarge
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Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from inside Washington State's Stonehenge Memorial. Image taken April 24, 2004.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 22, 1805 ...





Clark, April 22, 1806 ...




Columbia PlateauReturn to
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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2003

Sources:
  • Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, 2016;
  • Federal Writers' Project, 1941, "The New Washington: A Guild to the Evergreen State";
  • Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2019;
  • "MaryhillMuseum.org", 2004;
  • National Register of Historic Places, 2004, 2005;
  • Norman, D.K., Busacca, A.J., and Teissere, R., 2004, Geology of the Yakima Valley Wine Country - A Geologic Field Trip Guide from Stevenson to Zillah, Washington, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Field Trip Guide 1, June 2004;
  • Oregon Department of Transportation, 2004;
  • Oregon State Archives, 2005, "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon";
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2004, Steven Reidel, "Northwest Geology";
  • "Rootsweb.com", 2006, Klickitat County;
  • "Sam Hill Country" Community sign, Maryhill, Washington;
  • Washington State Parks and Recreation, 2004;


All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
/Regions/Places/maryhill.html
September 2016