Click image to enlarge
Lightship Columbia, Astoria, Oregon.
View from the Columbia River Maritime Museum. This lightship was the last lightship on the Pacific Coast, until replaced by a 42-foot-high buoy, similar to the one on the left.
Tongue Point is in the background, right.
Image taken June 16, 2004.
Lightship Columbia ...
Columbia River Maritime Museum in Astoria, Oregon is home of the last lightship serving the Pacific Coast, the "Lightship Columbia". Officially known as "WAL-604" (later "WLV-604"), the 128-foot welded-steel lightship was built in 1950 for the U.S. Coast Guard, and was stationed at the mouth of the Columbia River near Cape Disappointment between 1951 and 1979.
Columbia Lightship "WAL-604" retired on December 13, 1979, after 28 years of service, and was replaced by a 40-foot-diameter and 42-foot-high navigation buoy. Lightship Columbia "WAL-604" was sold to the Maritime Museum in Astoria in 1980, replacing its previous exhibit "Columbia Lightship 88" (see more below). Lightship "WAL-604" displays the name Columbia, is afloat, open to the public, and capable of operating under its own power. On December 20, 1989, the "Lightship Columbia" was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark #89002463.
The "Lightship Columbia" can be seen at the docks of Astoria's Columbia River Maritime Museum, with views of Tongue Point upstream, and the Astoria-Megler Bridge downstream.
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River Maritime Museum, with Lightship Columbia, Astoria, Oregon.
View seen and image taken from moving car.
Image taken October 18, 2009.
Columbia River Lightships ...
1892 to 1909 ... "LV-50":
The first Lightship on the Columbia River was "LV-50" which began operation in 1892, becoming the first active lightship on the west coast. This wooden-hulled vessel, equipped with sails, needed to be towed into position. The 1903 "Coast Pilot" listed the Lightship as having two fixed white "Reflector" lights 30 feet high and a 12-inch steam whistle which "blasts 5 seconds, silent intervals 55 seconds". The ship itself was:
"... Two masts, schooner-rigged, no bowspirt; red, circular, iron, cagework daymark at each masthead; hull red, with "COLUMBIA RIVER" in black on each side and "No.50" in black on each quarter."
1909 to 1939 ... "LV-88":
In 1909 a steel-hulled ship driven by a steam-powered propeller, the "LV-88", replaced the wooden lightship. Throughout its career it was upgraded with electric lights and a diesel elecric engine. In 1978 the "LV-88" was listed on the
National Register of Historic Places Structure #78002282.
1939 to 1951 ... "LV-93":
In 1939, the "LV-88" was replaced by the "LV-93", a ship of similar design. The "LV-93" served at the Columbia River station until 1951, when "WAL-604" took over.
From the 1942 "Coast Pilot":
Columbia River Lightship is moored on the Main Channel range for entering Columbia River, and is 8.2 miles 213o from North Head Light. It has a red hull with COLUMBIA on each side and two masts. The light, shown from the foremast, is 67 feet above the water, and visible 14 miles. The fog signal is sounded on a steam diaphragm horn. The lightship has a radiobeacon equipped for distance findings; the station receives and transmits emergency radio messages. Storm warnings are displayed at the lightship during daylight hours.
1951 to 1979 ... "WAL-604":
The last lightship serving the Pacific Coast was the "Lightship Columbia", officially known as "WAL-604" (later "WLV-604"). This vessel is a 128-foot welded-steel lightship built in 1950 for the U.S. Coast Guard. It was stationed at the mouth of the Columbia River between 1951 and 1979.
Columbia Lightship "WAL-604" retired on December 13, 1979, after 28 years of service, and was replaced by a 40-foot-diameter and 42-foot-high navigation buoy. On December 20, 1989, the "Lightship Columbia" was added to the Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark #89002463.
Lightship History ...
"Lightships were essential partners with America's lighthouses as part of the federal government's commitment to safe navigation on the nation's coasts and on the Great Lakes. While the first American lighthouse dates to the colonial era, the use of lightships is a more recent 19th century phenomenon in the United States, though employed earlier in Europe. Moored over treacherous reefs, or marking the narrow approaches to a channel or harbor entrance where lighthouses could not be built or placed in areas too far offshore for a shoreside lighthouse's lens to reach, lightships were fewer in number than the estimated 1,500 lighthouses built in the United States. In all, 179 lightships were built between 1820 and the 1952. In 1909, the heyday of the United States Lighthouse Service, there were 51 lightships (46 on the eastern seaboard and five on the Pacific Coast) on station in the United States. ...
The Coast Guard built six lightships. The first two, WAL- (later WLV-) 189 and 196, were built at Bay City, Michigan, in 1946. Somewhat similar in appearance to the 1930s lightships, the Coast Guard lightships, WLV-189 and 196, as well as the four lightships that followed them were the only completely welded lightships, built with a high degree of structural integrity and transverse bulkheads. These vessels were also the only lightships built with alternating current electrical systems throughout. They were direct diesel propelled, reflecting improvements made in high-compression diesel engines since the 1930s.
In 1950, two additional lightships, built to the same general plan of 189 and 196, and with the same features, were launched from the Rice Brothers shipyard at East Boothbay, Maine. WAL-604 and 605 were the last lightships built under contract for the government. In the same year, the Coast Guard built at its Curtis Bay, Maryland, yard Lightship WAL-612, another sister ship to 189 and 196. The last lightship was also built at Curtis Bay. Constructed in 1952, WAL-613, like her five preceding sisters, was a 128-foot welded steel vessel. However, the lightship mounted a single tripod mast of British design with the light on top. The Coast Guard-built lightships were the last in service, as all others were gradually retired. Technology brought an end to manned lightships about the same time manned lighthouses were being considered for automation. Large navigational buoys, 40 feet in diameter and 42 feet high, painted lightship red with automatic lights, fog signals, and radio beacons began to replace lightships in 1967. In 1983 the last two lightships, marking the Nantucket station, retired, ending a 150-year lightship tradition in the United States.
Today, 22 lightships exist in various conditions in the United States, with the earliest survivor from 1902. All six of the Coast Guard-built lightships survive."
U.S. National Park Service Marine Heritage Program website, 2005.
"Colossal Claude" ...
The Columbia River has "Colossal Claude", it's very own version of Scotland's "Loch Ness Monster". In 1934, the Columbia River Lightship "LV-88", along with the lightship tender "Rose", encountered a large unknown sea creature swimming near the mouth of the Columbia River. First Mate L.A. Larson described what the men saw:
"... about 40 feet long. It had a neck some eight
feet long, a big round body, a mean looking tail and an evil, snaky look
to its head."
According to news reports at the time, the crew studied the animal for a while through field glasses with some men wanting to investigate further by taking out a lifeboat and pursuing it. The officers of the LV-88 however turned down their request, worried that the animal might swamp the boat or attack them.
Claude was again spotted in 1937 by the troller "Viv". Skipper Charles E. Graham described the beast:
"... long, hairy, tan colored creature, with the head of an overgrown horse, about 40
feet long, and with a 4-foot waist measure."
Sightings of Claude continued up and down the coast until the 1950s, when they stopped.
Columbia River Maritime Museum ...
The Columbia River Maritime Museum was founded in 1962 by Rolf Klep, a native of Astoria who retired back to his home town. Kelp was a long-time collector of marine treasures, and with a group of his collegues wanted to establish a museum to preserve the maritime heritage of the Columbia River region. The Columbia River Maritime Museum is the result. The museum is located along Astoria's historic waterfront and displays one of the most extensive collections of nautical artifacts on the west coast. It is 44,200 square feet of exhibit space, was designated Oregon's official state maritime museum, and was the first nationally accredited maritime museum in the western United States. It is the home of the "Lightship Columbia".
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria, Oregon.
View seen and image taken from moving car.
Image taken October 18, 2009.
From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...
Clark, November 18, 1805 ...
A little cloudy this morning I Set out [from their camp at Station Camp] with 10 men and my man York to the Ocian by land. i. e. Serjt. Ordway & Pryor, Jos. & Ru. Fields, Go. Shannon, W. Brattin, J. Colter, P. Wiser, W. Labieche & P. Shabono one of our interpreters & York. [according to Moulton, Clark gave the other men's names in two inconsistent lists --- those named included Clark, Ordway, Charbonneau, Pryor, the Field brothers, Shannon, Colter, Weiser, Labiche, Bratton, and York.]
I Set out at Day light and proceeded on a Sandy beech
N. 80° W. 1 Mile to a point of rocks about 40 feet high [Chinook Point, now the location of Fort Columbia], from the top
of which the hill Side is open and assend with a Steep assent [Scarboro Hill]
to the tops of the Mountains, a Deep nitch and two Small
Streams above this point, then my course was
N. W. 7 Mile to the enterance of a creek [Chinook River] at a lodge or cabin of Chinnooks passing on a wide Sand bar the bay to my left [Baker Bay] and Several Small ponds Containing great numbers of water fowls to my right; with a narrow bottom of alder & Small balsam
between the Ponds and the Mountn.
This Creek appears to be
nothing more than the conveyance of Several Small dreans
from the high hills and the ponds on each Side near its mouth.
here we were Set across all in one Canoe by 2 Squars to each I
gav a Small hook
S. 79° W. 5 Miles to the mouth of Chin nook river, [today's Wallacut River]
passed a low bluff of a
small hite at 2 miles below which is the remains of huts near
which place is also the remains of a whale on the Sand, the
countrey low open and Slashey, with elivated lands interspersed covered with pine & thick under groth
This river [Wallacut River] is 40 yards wide at low tide- here we made a
fire and dined on 4 brant and 48 Pliver which was killed by
Labiech on the coast as we came on.
we crossed the river in an old canoe which I found on the
Sand near Som old houses & proceeded on-
S. 20° W. 4 Miles to a Small rock island in a deep nitch
passed a nitch at 2 miles in which there is a dreen from Some ponds back, the
land low opposite this nitch a bluff of yellow Clay and Soft Stone from the river to the Comencement of this nitch
below the Country rises to high hills of about 80 or 90 feet above
the water- at 3 miles passed a nitch- this rock Island is
Small and at the South of a deep bend [near Illwaco, Washington]
in which the nativs inform us the Ships anchor,
and from whence they receive their
goods in return for their peltries and Elk Skins &c. this appears to be a very good harber for large Ships.
here I found
Capt Lewis name on a tree. I also engraved my name & by land
the day of the month and year, as also Several of the men.
S. 46° E. 2 Miles to the inner extremity of Cape Disapointment passing a
[location of Fort Canby]
in which there is a Small rock island,
a Small Stream falls into this nitch from a pond [today O'Neil Lake lies between Fort Canby and McKenzie Head]
which is imediately on the Sea
Coast passing through a low isthmus.
this Cape is an ellivated <Situat> Circlier point [location Cape Disappointment Lighthouse] Covered with thick timber on the iner Side and open grassey exposur next to the Sea and rises
with a Steep assent to the hight of about 150 or 160 feet above
the leavel of the water <from the last mentioned nitch-> this
cape [Cape Disappointment] as also the Shore both on the Bay & Sea coast is a dark brown rock [basalt]. I crossed the neck of Land low and ½ of a mile wide to the main Ocian [today Waikiki Beach is located on the ocean side of this isthmus], at the foot of a high open hill projecting into the ocian, and about one mile in Sicumfrance. I assended this hill [McKenzie Head] which is covered with high corse grass. decended to the N. of it and camped. I picked up a flounder
on the beech this evening.-
from Cape Disapointment to a high point of a Mountn. which we shall call [the Nicholas Biddle version has Clarke's Point of View inserted here. "Clarke's Point of View" is today's Tillamook Head, a name received when Clark visited and climbed the formation in Janaury 1806.] beares S. 20° W. about <40> [WC?: 25] miles, point adams is verry low and is Situated within the direction between those two high points of land, the water appears verry Shole from off the mouth of the river for a great distance, and I cannot assertain the direction of the deepst Chanel, the Indians point nearest the opposit Side. the waves appear to brake with tremendious force in every direction quite across a large Sand bar lies within the mouth nearest to point Adams [Point Adams] which is nearly covered at high tide. I suped on brant this evening with a little pounded fish. Some rain in the after part of the night. men appear much Satisfied with their trip beholding with estonishment the high waves dashing against the rocks & this emence ocian.