Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Lewis River, Washington"
Includes ... Lewis River ... "Cah-wah-na-ki-ooks River" ... "Cathlapootle River" ... "Washington River" ... "Rushleigh's River" ... Austin Point ... Lewis River Floodplain ... North Fork Lewis River ... East Fork Lewis River ... Cedar Creek ... Cedar Creek Grist Mill ... Lewisville Park ... Paradise Point State Park ... National Register of Historic Places ...
Image, 2007, Lewis River, downstream towards mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Lewis River looking towards mouth. Looking towards Austin Point (on the right) and the Columbia River. Industry of St. Helens, Oregon, is in the background. Image taken March 29, 2007.


Lewis River ...
The Lewis River is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 87.5. The watershed includes two large drainages, the North Fork Lewis and the East Fork Lewis, which converge approximately 3.5 miles upstream of the confluence with the Columbia. A half mile upstream is the Washington city of Woodland.

Along the Columbia River upstream from the Lewis River mouth is the downstream end of Bachelor Island and Lake River, and 33 miles upstream is Vancouver, Washington. Thirteen miles downstream of the Lewis River mouth is Kalama, Washington, and the Kalama River.

On the Oregon side of the Columbia River and slightly downstream of the mouth of the Lewis River is the Multnomah Channel and the Oregon community of St. Helens. The Warrior Rock Lighthouse can be seen from the mouth of the Lewis.

The downstream bank at the mouth of the Lewis River is called "Austin Point".


Image, 2004, North Fork Lewis River, click to enlarge
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Recreation, North Fork Lewis River. Image taken July 4, 2005.


Lewis and Clark and the Lewis River ...
Lewis and Clark passed the river on November 5, 1805, but did not make mention of it. Captain Clark wrote in his journal:

"... passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel at 9 miles ..." [Clark, November 5, 1805]

The island is Bachelor Island, which the Corp entered as "Green Bryor I." on their draft map. Moulton (1990, Vol.6) suggests the "narrow Chanel" could be the mouth of the Lewis River, however on both the draft map [Moulton, vol.1, map#89] and the route map [map#79] the downstream tip of Bachelor Island and the Lewis River are quite a distance apart, with today's Lake River/Bachelor Island Slough shown behind the island.

On the Corps return in March 1806, Lewis and Clark are informed of the Lewis River when they were camped on Deer Island.

"... Since we landed here we were visited by a large canoe with ten natives of the quathlahpahtle nation who are numerous and reside about seventeen miles above us on the lard. side of the Columbia, at the entrance of a small river." [Lewis, March 28, 1806]

"... we were visited by a large Canoe with ten nativs of the Quathlahpohtle nation who are numerous and reside about fourteen Miles above us on the N E. Side of the Columbia above the Enterance of a Small river which the Indians call Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks." [Clark, March 28, 1806]

The next morning, on March 29, 1806, the men set off upstream. They pass a "large inlet" on the south (today's Multnomah Channel), and the Lewis River on the north.

"... after breakfast we proceeded on and at the distance of 14 miles from our encampment of the last evening we passed a large inlet 300 yds in width.    this inlet or arm of the river extends itself to the South 10 or 12 M. to the hills on that side of the river ... on the North side of the columbia a little above the entrance of this inlet a considerable river discharges itself.    this stream the natives call the Cah-wah-na-hi-ooks.    it is 150 yards wide and at present discharges a large body of water, tho' from the information of the same people it is not navigable but a short distance in consequence of falls and rappids a tribe called the Hull-lu-et-tell reside on this river above it's entr. --    at the distance of three miles above the entrance of the inlet on the N. side behind the lower point of an island we arrived at the village of the Cath-lah-poh-tle wich consists of 14 large wooden houses." [Lewis, March 29, 1806]

"... we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the Island was the proper one.    we prosued their advice and Crossed into the mouth of the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks River which is about 200 yards wide and a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high. The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some distance up it. Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on this river. at 3 oClock P.M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tle Village of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island." [Clark, March 29, 1806]

The "Quath lah pah tle" Village was located within today's Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Lewis and Clark spent the night of March 29 near the village.


Image, 2012, Lewis River, upstream from mouth, click to enlarge
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Scenic ... Lewis River near its confluence with the Columbia River. Image taken December 5, 2012.
Image, 2012, Lewis River, upstream from mouth, click to enlarge
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Reflections ... Lewis River near its confluence with the Columbia River. Image taken December 5, 2012.


Lewis River Watershed ...
According to the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website (2004), the Lewis River watershed is approximately 93 miles long, has a total fall of approximately 12,000 feet, and drains an area of about 1,050 square miles. The headwaters arise on the southern flanks of Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams. Mount Adams is the highest peak in the basin at 12,307 feet, and Mount St. Helens is an active volcano. The majority of the Lewis River basin is forested, with an area of approximately 30 square miles of upper basin denuded by the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.

The major tributaries within the Lewis River system below Merwin Dam (RM 19.5) include the East Fork Lewis River, Johnson Creek, and Cedar Creek.

The Lewis River drainage system is the result of geologic uplifting, volcanoes, and river flooding. The bedrock surrounding the three reservoirs is predominately younger Eocene to older Oligocene volcanic lava flows Oligocene volcaniclastic rocks, and Quaternary volcaniclastic deposits. The volcanic rocks have undergone regional compressional deformation with rock strata being folded by a major southeast plunging anticline and a southeast plunging syncline.


Image, 2007, Lewis River, click to enlarge
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Lewis River, right bank, near its confluence with the Columbia River. Austin Point is in the background. Image taken March 29, 2007.
Image, 2007, Lewis River, click to enlarge
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Living along the Lewis River. Image taken March 29, 2007.


Adolphus Lee Lewis (Lewes) ...
The Lewis River was NOT named after Captain Meriwhether Lewis of the 1805-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Lewis River was named after Adolphus Lee Lewis, or "Lewes", who, in 1845, took a donation land claim on the river's west bank. Adolphus Lee Lewis was the county surveyor in 1856, which may have had bearing on the naming of the Lewis River, Lewis River Valley, and Lewisville, a community located near a ford on the East Fork of the Lewis River, the location of today's Lewisville Park.

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office Records (GLO) website (2011) shows a listing for the Heirs of Adolphus Lee Lewes, on December 22, 1865, being granted title to 322.42 acres of T5N R1E, section 30, and T5N R1W, sections 24 and 25, under the 1850 Oregon-Donation Act.

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office Records (GLO) website (2011) shows a listing for Adolphus Lee Lewes, on February 8, 1892, being granted title to 35.75 acres of T5N R1E, section 18, under the 1820 Sale-Cash Entry.

The GLO website also shows a Milly W. Lewes being granted title on July 2, 1866, to 80 acres of T5N R1W, Section 35 (1820 Sale-Cash Entry), and 40 acres of T5N R1W, also in Section 35 (1820 Sale-Cash Entry).

An 1863 cadastral map (tax map) for T5N R1E, shows an area of Section 30 claimed by "A.L. Lewis". The 1864 cadastral map for T5N R1W, shows an area of Section 25 claimed by "A. Lee Lewis".


Early Lewis River ...
In 1792 Lieutenant Broughton of the Captain George Vancouver Expedition passed by the Lewis River on October 28, 1792, and named the Lewis River "Rushleigh's River".

"... At point Warrior the river is divided into three branches; the middle one was the largest, about a quarter of a mile wide, and was considered as the main brach; the next most capacious took an easterly directions, and seemed extensive, to this the name of Rushleigh's River was given; and the other that stretched to the S. S. W. was distinguished by the name of Call's River. ..." [Vancouver, October 28, 1792]

Warrior Point is the downstream tip of Sauvie Island and the "river" mentioned is the Columbia River. The three branches are "Call's River", today's Multnomah Channel, the Columbia, and "Rushleigh's River", today's Lewis River.

Lewis and Clark passed the Lewis River on November 5, 1805, but did not make mention of it. On their return in March 1806 the Indians inform the men of the river which they call the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks (see information presented above).

When the artist Paul Kane wrote about the Lewis River on March 26, 1847, he called the river the "Kattlepoutal River".

"... When we arrived at the mouth of the Kattlepoutal River, twenty-six miles from Fort Vancouver, I stopped to make a sketch of the volcano, Mount St. Helens's, distant, I suppose, about thirty or forty miles. [Paul Kane, 1859, "Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America", London]

In 1853 the railroad mapped the North Fork Lewis River as "Cathlapootle River".

Another early name for the Lewis River was the "Washington River".

An 1854 Washington Territory cadastral survey (tax survey) for T4N R1W has the Lewis River labelled the "Catapoodle R.". The State of Oregon cadastral survey for the same year has the Lewis as the "Cadapoodle River". Washington Territory's 1862 cadastral survey matches Oregon with the Lewis River being the "Cadapoodle River".

An article in the "Pioneer and Democrat" newspaper (August 5, 1854, p.3) called the Lewis River the "Cathlapoodle River".

"... Gold on Cathlapoodle River. --- We learn from Mr. Huff, that vaulable mines have been discovered on the Cathlapoodle river, some 30 or 40 miles above its mouth. Large quantities of gold, silver, and rich iron ore, have been found on this river. The Cathlapoodle takes its rise at Mt. St. Helens, and empties into the Columbia at the lower end of Sauvie's Island. It is also reported that there are rich mines in the vicinity of Mt. St. Helens.-- Times

In 1866 Lincoln, one of the first settlements along the Lewis River, was founded. This small trading post and post office were located at the mouth of Lockwood Creek, named after Reuben Lockwood who settled the area.

In 1881 Woodland was established on the Lewis River four miles upstream of its confluence with the Columbia.

The 1881 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey's Chart No.5, "Kalama to Fales Landing", lists the Lewis as the "Lewis River".

In 1929 the U.S. Board of Geographic Names made official the name "Lewis River".


Image, 2006, Interstate 5 bridge across Lewis River, click to enlarge
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Interstate 5 bridge across the Lewis River, heading north. Image taken December 2, 2006.


Lewis River, etc.

  • Lewis River Mile (RM) 0 ... Austin Point ...
  • RM 1 ... Lewis River Floodplain ...
  • RM 2 ... Lewis River Railroad Bridge ...
  • RM 3.5 ... East Fork Lewis River ...
  • RM 3.5 ... Mainstem Lewis River (North Fork Lewis River) ...
  • RM 5.5 ... Interstate 5 ...
  • RM 6 ... Horseshoe Lake ...
  • RM 6.5 ... Woodland ...
  • RM 15.5 ... Cedar Creek ...
    • Cedar Creek Grist Mill ...
  • RM 19 ... Ariel ...
  • RM 19.5 ... Lake Merwin ...
  • RM 32 ... Yale Bridge ...
  • RM 33 ... Canyon Creek ...
  • RM 34 ... Yale Lake ...
  • RM 42 ... Cougar ...
  • RM 48 ... Swift Reservoir ...


RM 0 ... Austin Point ...
Austin Point is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 87.5. Austin Point is the downstream bank (right bank) of the Lewis River.
[More]

Image, 2007, Lewis River, downstream towards mouth, click to enlarge
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Lewis River looking towards mouth. Looking towards Austin Point (on the right) and the Columbia River. Industry of St. Helens, Oregon, is in the background. Image taken March 29, 2007.


RM 1 ... Lewis River Floodplain ...
The Lewis River Floodplain extends five miles along the Washington shore, from the mouth of the Lewis River at Columbia River Mile (RM) 87.5, to downstream Burke and Martin Islands, at RM 82.5. The community of Woodland lies along the right bank of the Lewis River where the Lewis leaves the Cascade foothills and the floodplain begins.
[More]

Image, 2007, Lewis River Floodplain, click to enlarge
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Lewis River Floodplain. Image taken March 4, 2007.
Image, 2007, Lewis River Floodplain, click to enlarge
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Tulip field, Lewis River Floodplain. Image taken April 22, 2007.


RM 2 ... Lewis River Railroad Bridge ...
The Burlington Northern Santa Fe tracks cross the Lewis River near its mouth. The rail line was completed from Kalama, Washington to Portland, Oregon in 1908.
[More]

Image, 2004, Bridge crossing the Lewis River, near mouth, click to enlarge
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Railroad Bridge crossing the Lewis River. View is from the Lewis River's right bank, just upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River. Image taken August 29, 2004.
Image, 2004, Bridge crossing the Lewis River, near mouth, click to enlarge
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Railroad Bridge crossing the Lewis River. View is from the Lewis River's right bank, just upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River. Image taken August 29, 2004.


RM 3.5 ... East Fork Lewis River
The East Fork Lewis River has its headwaters near Green Lookout Mountain, and enters the mainstem Lewis at River Mile (RM) 3.5. Washington State's Paradise Point State Park is located at RM 1, Daybreak Park at RM 10, Lewisville Park, the first regional park in Clark County, is located at RM 15, and Lucia Falls is located at RM 21.3.
[More]

Image, 2006, East Fork Lewis River, click to enlarge
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East Fork Lewis River, from Paradise Point State Park. Image taken May 30, 2006.


RM 3.5 ... Mainstem Lewis River (North Fork Lewis River ) ...
The mainstem of the Lewis River is also known as the North Fork Lewis River. It flows southwesterly from its source at Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams through three reservoirs (Swift Reservoir at River Mile (RM) 47.9, Yale Reservoir at RM 34.2, and Merwin Lake at RM 19.5) and then forms a canyon to the confluence of Cedar Creek at RM 15.7. The lower 12 miles of the mainstem Lewis flows through a wide flat valley, much of which is under cultivation and protected from flooding by dikes. The lower 11 miles are a tidally influenced backwater of the Columbia River. Within this area, the flow is sluggish and the sediments are generally composed of sand, silts, and clays typical of lower floodplains. The East Fork of the Lewis River merges with the North Fork at RM 3.5 to form the Lewis.

Image, 2004, North Fork Lewis River at Cedar Creek, looking downstream, click to enlarge
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North Fork Lewis River at Cedar Creek, looking downstream. Image taken July 4, 2005.
Image, 2005, North Fork Lewis River at Cedar Creek, looking downstream, click to enlarge
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Kayaks, North Fork Lewis River at Cedar Creek. Image taken July 4, 2005.


RM 5.5 ... Interstate 5 ...
Interstate 5 first crosses the East Fork Lewis River and 1.6 miles later it crosses the mainstem Lewis River (North Fork Lewis River) at Lewis River's RM 5.5.

Image, 2011, Interstate 5 approaching Lewis River drainage, near Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Interstate 5 approaching the Lewis River drainage, near Woodland, Washington. Image taken November 8, 2011.
Image, 2011, Interstate 5 Bridge near Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Interstate 5 crossing the East Fork Lewis River, near Woodland, Washington. Image taken November 8, 2011.
Image, 2011, Interstate 5 Bridge near Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Interstate 5 crossing the mainstem Lewis River (North Fork Lewis River), near Woodland, Washington. Image taken November 8, 2011.


RM 6 ... Horseshoe Lake ...
Horseshoe Lake is a man-made cutoff meander of the Lewis River. In 1940 the 90-acre horseshoe-shaped lake was created with construction of U.S. Highway 99.

Image, 2005, Horseshoe Lake, Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Horseshoe Lake, Woodland, Washington. Image taken April 27, 2005.
Image, 2005, Horseshoe Lake, Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fisherman, Horseshoe Lake, Woodland, Washington. Image taken April 27, 2005.


RM 6.5 ... Woodland ...
Woodland, Washington, is located on the Lewis River at Lewis River Mile (RM) 6.5, upstream from the Lewis River's junction with the Columbia River at RM 82. A broad floodplain lies between the community and the Columbia River. Woodland is famous for its lilacs, daffodils, and tulip fields.
[More]

Image, 2007, Tulips, Woodland, Washington, click to enlarge
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Tulip field, Woodland, Washington. Image taken April 22, 2007.


RM 15.5 ... Cedar Creek ...
Cedar Creek enters the mainstem Lewis River (North Fork Lewis River) at RM 15.5. The Cedar Creek Grist Mill is located just upstream of the Cedar River's confluence with the mainstem Lewis River. The grist mill was built in 1876 and is still operational. It was listed on the Clark County Heritage Register in 1986 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 (Building - #75001844).
[More]

Image, 2005, Cedar Creek at mouth, click to enlarge
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Cedar Creek at mouth, looking downstream towards the Lewis River. Image taken July 4, 2005.
Image, 2005, Cedar Creek Grist Mill, click to enlarge
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Cedar Creek Grist Mill near Woodland, Washington. Image taken July 4, 2005.


RM 19 ... Ariel ...
(to come)


RM 19.5 ... Lake Merwin ...
Lake Merwin (also called Merwin Reservoir) is a 4,040-acre reservoir behind Merwin Dam, located 19 miles upstream on the North Fork Lewis River. Merwin Dam is the lower of three dams belonging to the Pacific Corps' "Lewis River Hydroelectric Project". The dams were constructed between 1931 and 1959 and generate 510 megawatts of energy (2011). Three recreational sites are located on Lake Merwin. Merwin Park, Speelyai Park, and Cresap Bay Park have a combined 177 picnic tables, 78 campsites, and two boat launch docks (2011). Merwin Dam was placed in service in 1931 and generates 136 megawatts. It is a 313-foot high concrete arch dam.


RM 32 ... Yale Bridge ...
The Yale Bridge, also known as the "Lewis River Bridge" and the "Washington Highway 503 Bridge", was first built in 1932 by the combined counties of Clark and Cowlitz, and is the only steel short-span suspension bridge in Washington. The bridge was rebuilt in 1957. In 1982 the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Engineering/Transportation #82004206).

"In 1932, Clark and Cowlitz County jointly constructed a short-spanned steel suspension bridge across the Lewis River to replace a steel truss that had been demolished as a result of the construction of the Ariel Dam. Because the backwater from the dam created a depth of 90 feet at the bridge site, it made it unusually difficult to build falsework, a prerequisite for the construction of the traditional type of highway bridge. Consequently, it was necessary to turn to other, less conventional solutions to forge the river.

Originally, a 532 foot struction was built which consisted of a 300 foot steel truss span supported by 2 7/8 inch galvanized steel cables suspended from two 332 foot steel towers. The 17 foot roadway is carried 50 feet above high water. ...   In 1957 five 30 foot steel beam approach spans were added. ...

The bridge was designed by Harold H. Gilbert, and was built by the Gilpin Construction Company of Portland, Oregon.

Although there are numerous examples of timber suspension bridges throughout the State, the Yale Bridge is the only example of a short-span steel suspension bridge. The visual impact of the form of the parabolic curve of the cable stretching between two towers, has an unrelenting, universal appeal. However, the short-span steel suspension bridge has remained rare, because cost factors have prevented it from competing with simple steel trusses, cantilevers, or arches for ordinary highway structures."


Source:    U.S. National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 1982.


Image, 2014, Lewis River, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Bridge (Highway 503), looking south, crossing the Lewis River, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Lewis River, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Bridge (Highway 503), looking south, crossing the Lewis River, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.


RM 33 ... Canyon Creek ...
Canyon Creek merges with the Lewis River at RM 33. The 19-mile-long creek heads at ZigZag Lake, southeast of Green Lookout Mountain, and basically flows northwest until merging with the mainstem Lewis. At Canyon Creek RM 2, lies Tumtum Mountain, an eroded conical lava dome.

Image, 2014, Tumtum Mountain, Washington click to enlarge
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Tumtum Mountain, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.


RM 34 ... Yale Lake ...
Yale Lake (also called Yale Reservoir) is a 3,780-acre reservoir behind Yale Dam and is located on the North Fork Lewis River, 34 miles upstream of its confluence with the Columbia River. Yale Lake has four recreational parks (Saddle Dam, Yale Park, Cougar Park and Campground, and Beaver Bay Camp) with a combined 45 picnic tables, 118 campsites, and four boat launch docks (2011). Yale Dam is a 323-foot high earthfill embankment dam which was completed in 1953.

Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Lake, Yale Park Recreation Area, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Lake and Mount St. Helens, as seen from Yale Park Recreation Area, Washington. Mount St. Helens is at skyline. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Picnic at Yale Lake, as seen from Yale Park Recreation Area, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Lake, Beaver Bay Recreation Area, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Lake, looking east, as seen from Beaver Bay Recreation Area, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Yale Lake, looking west, as seen from Beaver Bay Recreation Area, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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Beaver Bay boat launch, Yale Lake, Washington. The Beaver Bay Recreation Area is located just below the Swift Dam. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Yale Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
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"High Water Hazard Zone" sign, Yale Lake, as seen from Beaver Bay Recreation Area, Washington. The Beaver Bay Recreation Area is located just below the Swift Dam. Image taken September 4, 2014.


RM 42 ... Cougar ...
(to come)


RM 48 ... Swift Reservoir ...
Swift Reservoir is the reservoir behind Swift Dam and is located on the North Fork Lewis River, 42 miles upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River. There are two recreational areas on Swift Reservoir (Swift Forest Camp and Eagle Cliff Park) with a combined 11 picnic tables, 93 campsites, and one boat launch (2011). Swift Dam, built in 1958, is a 512-foot high earthfill dam, making it one of the highest earthfilled dams in the world. Two hydroelectric facilites are associated with Swift Dam. Swift No.1 is located at the dam, with the 3-plus-mile-long Swift Power Canal connecting it to Swift No.2, where the water is then returned to Yale Lake.

Image, 2014, Swift Reservoir, Washington, click to enlarge
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Swift Reservoir, Washington. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Swift Reservoir, Washington, click to enlarge
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Swift Dam Power Canal, Washington, looking upstream. Image taken September 4, 2014.
Image, 2014, Road at Swift Powerhouse No.2, Washington, click to enlarge
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Washington Highway 503 at Swift Powerhouse No.2, Washington. Embankment on the right holds back the waters of the Swift Power Canal, connecting Swift No.1 with Swift No.2. View looking west. Image taken September 4, 2014.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 5, 1805 ...
Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I [s]lept but verry little last night [Post Office Lake, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island [one of the islands of the Ridgefield Refuge] close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid- we Set out <at about Sun rise> early here the river is not more than 3/4 of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side [quite possibly the location of today's Campbell Lake] passed 2 houses about 1/2 a mile from each other on the Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in its mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers [Bachelor Island] Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] at 9 [8?] miles I observed on the Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] which passes on the Stard Side of this Island [Bachelor Island] a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village [Cathlapotle Village, near where Lewis and Clark camped on March 29, 1806, a place now known as Wapato Portage], the front of which occupies nearly 1/4 of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens to about 1 1/2 miles. ...    about 1 1/2 miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point [Warrior Point, Sauvie Island], we passed a Chanel 1/4 of a mile wide [Multnomah Channel] which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island [Hayden Island, at this point Lewis and Clark had not discovered Hayden Island and Sauvie Island were two separate islands]     a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel [St. Helens, Oregon], a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit [Lewis River floodplain, home of Woodland, Washington, possibly more of an "island" in 1805 ???], and 2 Small Islands, below [today's Burke and Martin Islands], here we met 2 canoes from below,- below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river [Martin Bluff], the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine     an extensive low Island [Deer Island], Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with <Small> grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer ...     below the lower point of this Island [Deer Island] a range of high hills which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, [Lewis and Clark are passing Goble, Oregon, and the area around the Trojan Nuclear Power Facility     The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river [Kalama, Washington]. We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man- we landed on the Lard. Side & camped [near Prescott Beach, Oregon] a little below the mouth of a creek [Kalama River] on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned-;     here the river is about one and a half miles wide. and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley [Columbian Valley] which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River [Sandy River] to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable- I saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call <Wap-pa-too Columbia> from the root or plants growing Spontaniously in this valley only ...     We made 32 miles to day by estimation-






Clark, March 28, 1806 ...
This morning we Set out verry early [from their campsite near Goble, Oregon] and at 9 A. M. arived at an old Indian Village on the N E side of Deer island [Deer Island] where we found our hunters had halted and left one man with the Canoes at their Camp, they arrived last evening at this place, and Six of them turned out very early to hunt, at 10 A. M. they all returned to camp haveing killed Seven Deer, those were all of the Common fallow Deer with a long tail [Columbian White-tailed Deer, currently being protected in the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge]. I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards of 17 inches long; they are very poor, tho' they are better than the black tail Species of the Sea coast.     those are two very distinct Species of Deer.     the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar, or Deer Island [Deer Island] which is a very appropriate name.     the hunters informed us that they had Seen upwards of a hundred Deer this morning on this island.     the interior of this Island is a prarie & ponds, with a heavy growth of Cotton wood, ash & willow near the river.     we have Seen more water fowl on this island than we have previously Seen Since we left Fort Clatsop [Fort Clatsop, where the men wintered over], ...     at after 10 A. M. it became fair and we had the Canoes which wanted repareing hauled out and with the assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them Sufficiently to receve the pitch which was imedeately put on them; at 3 in the evening we had them Compleated and lanced and reloaded.     we should have Set out but some of the party whome we had permitid to hunt Since we arrived heve not yet returned.     we determined to remain here this evening [near the northern end of Deer Island] and dry our bedding &c. the weather being fair. Since we landed here we were visited by a large Canoe with ten nativs of the Quathlahpohtle nation who are numerous and reside about fourteen Miles above us on the N E. Side of the Columbia [today within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] above the Enterance of a Small river which the Indians call Chh-wh-na-hi-ooks [Lewis River].     we saw a great number of Snakes on this island; ...     The men who had been Sent after the deer returned with four only, the other 4 haveing been eaten entirely by the Voulturs except the Skin. The men we had been permitted to hunt this evening killed 3 deer 4 Eagles & a Duck.     the deer are remarkably pore. Some rain in the after part of the day. we only made 5 miles to day.






Clark, March 29, 1806 ...
we Set out very early this morning [from their camp on Deer Island] and proceeded to the head of deer island [Deer Island, Oregon] and took brackfast. the morning was very cold wind Sharp and keen off the rainge of Mountains to the East Covered with snow [Cascade Mountain Range]. the river is now riseing very fast and retards our progress very much as we are compelled to keep out at Some distance in the Curent to clear the bushes, and fallin trees and drift logs makeing out from the Shore. dureing the time we were at Brackfast a Canoe with three Indians of the Clan-nar-min-na-mon Nation came down, ...     they reside on Wappato Inlet [Multnomah Channel] which is on the S W. side about 12 miles above our encampment of the last night [Deer Island] and is about 2 miles from the lower point, four other Tribes also reside on the inlet and Sluce which passes on the South W. Side of the Island [Sauvie Island], ...    we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island [Sauvie Island] accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the Island [Sauvie Island, the other channel being today's Multnomah Channel] was the proper one. we prosued their advice and Crossed into the mouth of the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks River [Lewis River] which is about 200 yards wide and a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high. The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some distance up it. Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on this river. at 3 oClock P. M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tle Village [Cathlapotle Village, today within the Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit] of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island [Bachelor Island]. ...     we purchased wappatoe and Some pashaquar roots.     gave a Medal of the Small Size [Jefferson Peace Medal] to the principal Chief, and at 5 oClock reembarked and proceeded up [on Lake River] on the N E. of an Island [Bachelor Island] to an inlet [??? perhaps drainage from Carty Lake] about 1 mile [Lewis says 2 miles] above the village and encamped on a butifull grassy plac [Wapato Portage], where the nativs make a portage of their Canoes and Wappato roots to and from a large pond at a Short distance [Carty Lake]. in this pond [Carty Lake] the nativs inform us they Collect great quantities of pappato, which the womin collect by getting into the water, Sometimes to their necks holding by a Small canoe and with their feet loosen the wappato or bulb of the root from the bottom from the Fibers, and it imedeately rises to the top of the water, they Collect & throw them into the Canoe, those deep roots are the largest and best roots. Great numbers of the whistling Swan, Gees and Ducks in the Ponds. ...     we made 15 miles to day only.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Cedar Creek Grist Mill website, 2005;    City of Vancouver website, 2007;    City of Vancouver Parks and Recreation website, 2005;    Clark County website, 2005;    Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website, 2004, 2005;    Hitchman, R., 1985, Place Names of Washington, Washington State Historical Society;    Early Canadana Online, Library and Archives of Canada website, 2005;    National Register of Historic Places website, 2005;    NOAA Office of Coast Survey website, 2005, Historical Map and Chart Collection;    Oregon Bureau of Land Management website, 2005;    Pacificorp's "Lewis River Hydroelectric Project brochure, 2011;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2011, General Land Office (GLO) Records;    U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) website, 2006;    Washington Secretary of State website, 2004, Washington History;    Washington State Department of Transportation website, 2014;    Washington State Parks and Recreation website 2006, 2014;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2014