Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge"
Includes ... Julia Butler Hansen Refuge ... Columbian White-tailed Deer National Wildlife Refuge ...
Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge. Also known as the Columbian White-tailed Deer National Wildlife Refuge, the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge encompasses many islands in the Columbia River. Image taken January 26, 2011.


Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge ...
Columbian White-tailed Deer National Wildlife Refuge ...
The Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1972 as the Columbian White-tailed Deer National Wildlife Refuge. It was established to manage and protect the endangered Columbian White-tailed Deer. In 1988 the name was changed to honor Julia Butler Hansen, a Cathlamet resident who became the first woman to chair an appropriations subcommitte in Congress. The refuge contains over 6,000 acres of pastures, forested tidal swamps, brushy woodlots, marshes, and sloughs along the Columbia River in both Washington and Oregon, and includes Tenasillahe Island in Oregon, and the lower Elochoman River area in Washington State.

The Julia Butler Hansen Refuge is bordered by the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the community of Skamokawa on its west and the community of Cathlamet on its east. Steamboat Slough Road follows the southwestern edge of the mainland unit, providing good views into the Refuge. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website (2008), about 300 Columbian White-tailed Deer live on the refuge, with another 300-400 living on private lands along the Columbia.


Columbian White-tailed Deer ...
The Columbian white-tailed deer is one of 30 subspecies of white-tailed deer in North America, and the only one found west of the Cascade Mountains. These deer once ranged throughout the river valleys west of the Cascade Mountains. By the turn of the century, they had disappeared from nearly all of their range and, in the 1930s, were thought to be extinct. Remnant populations were discovered here and near Roseburg, Oregon. In 1968, the lower Columbia River population was listed as a federally endangered species. This population is now found only along the lower Columbia River between Skamokawa, Washington, and Clatskanie, Oregon.

Lewis and Clark called the Columbian White-tailed Deer the "common red deer".

" ... The common red deer we found under the rocky mts. in the neighbourhood of the Chopunnish, and about the great falls of the Columbia river and as low down the same as the commencement of tide water.     these do not appear to differ essencially from those of our country being about the same size shape and appearance in every rispect except their great length of tail which is more than half as long again as our deer     I measured one of them which was 17 inches long. ..." [Lewis, February 19, 1806]

Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbian White-tailed. Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken July 6, 2011.
Image, 2004, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge, deer from car window, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbian White-tailed Deer. Deer through car window, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge. Image taken April 9, 2004.


Principal Units ...
The principal units of the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge are the Mainland Unit, Hunting Islands, Price Island, Tenasillahe Island, Wallace island, and Crims Island. There are also some small scattered tracts of land located in Oregon including the 47 acres Kinnunen Cut, 3.55 acres on Anunde Island, and 145 acres on the Oregon mainland in the vicinity of Westport, Oregon. Hunting, Price, Tenasillahe, and Wallace Islands are accessible only by boat.

Image, 2003, Hunting Islands, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Hunting Islands, as seen from Puget Island. The Hunting Islands are part of the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge. Cathlamet, Washington, is visible on the right. Image taken November 9, 2003.
Image, 2012, Tenasillahe Island from Puget Island, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Tenasillahe Island as seen from Puget Island. Image taken September 17, 2012.
Image, 2012, Southeastern tip of Anunde Island, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Southeastern tip of Anunde Island. View of the main branch of the Clatskanie River (often seen labeled "Beaver Slough") and the southeastern tip of Anunde Island, just upstream from where it merges with the Wallace Slough. View from Erickson Dike Road. Image taken August 28, 2012.


Views ...

Image, 2005, Elochoman Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Elochoman Slough, Washington. View from the Julia Butler Hansen Wildlife Refuge, with one of the Hunting Islands in the background. Image taken July 28, 2005.
Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Scenic, Julian Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken January 26, 2011.
Image, 2013, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Scenic, Julian Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken March 8, 2013.
Image, 2000, Elochoman Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Elochoman Slough, Washington, looking towards mouth. View from the Julia Butler Hansen Wildlife Refuge, with one of the Hunting Islands on the left. Image taken October 13, 2007.
Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, Washington, at mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Julia Butler Hansen NWR, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken January 26, 2011.
Image, 2013, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Bald Eagles, Julian Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 4, 2013.
Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Canada Geese, Julian Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken January 26, 2011.
Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, click to enlarge
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Cliff Swallow nests, Julian Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken July 6, 2011.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, February 15, 1806
The quadrupeds of this countrey from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocian are first the Domestic Animals, consisting of the Horses and Dogs only; 2ndly the Native Wild Animals, consisting of the White, brown, or Grizly bear (which I believe to be the same family with a mearly accidentail difference in point of Colour) The Black Bear, the Elk, the Common red Deer [Columbian White-tailed Deer], the Mule deer, the black tailed fallow Deer, the large brown wolf, the Small wolf of the Plains, the large wolf of the Plains, Panther, the tiger cat, the common red fox, the black fox or fisher, the Silver fox, large red fox of the plains, Small fox of the plains or kit fox, Antelope, Sheep, beaver, Common Otter, Sea Otter, minks, Seals racoons, large Grey Squerrel, Small brown Squirrel, Small grey Squirrel, Ground Squirrel, Sewelel, Braror, rat, mouse, mole, hare, rabbet, and pole Cat or Skunk. all of which Shall be Severally noticed in the order in which they occur as well as Such others as I learn do exist, and which not been here recapitulated.


Lewis, February 15, 1806
The quadrupeds of this country from the Rocky Mountains to the pacific Ocean are 1st the domestic animals, consisting of the horse and the dog only; 2cdly the native wild animals, consisting of the Brown white or grizly bear, (which I beleive to be the same family with a mearly accedental difference in point of colour) the black bear, the common red deer [Columbian White-tail Deer], the black tailed fallow deer, the Mule deer, Elk, the large brown wolf, the small woolf of the plains, the large wolf of the plains, the tiger cat, the common red fox, black fox or fisher, silver fox, large red fox of the plains, small fox of the plains or kit fox, Antelope, sheep, beaver, common otter, sea Otter, mink, spuck, seal, racoon, large grey squirrel, small brown squirrel, small grey squirrel, ground squirrel, sewelel, Braro, rat, mouse, mole, Panther, hare, rabbit, and polecat or skunk.





Lewis, February 19, 1806
The common red deer [Columbian White-tail Deer] we found under the rocky mts. in the neighbourhood of the Chopunnish, and about the great falls of the Columbia river and as low down the same as the commencement of tide water.     these do not appear to differ essencially from those of our country being about the same size shape and appearance in every rispect except their great length of tail which is more than half as long again as our deer     I measured one of them which was 17 inches long. The Black tailed fallow deer are peculiar to this coast and are a distinct species of deer partaking equally of peculiarities of the mule deer and the common deer.     their ears are reather larger and their winter coat darker than the common deer; the recepticle of the eye or drane is mor conspicuous; their legs shorter and body thicker and larger than the common deer; their tail is about the length of our deer or from 8 to 10 inches the hair on the underside of which is white, and that of it's sides and top quite black     the horns resemble in form and colour those of the mule deer which it also resembles in it's gate; that is bounding with all four feet off the ground at the same time when runing at full speed and not loping as the common deer or antelope do.     they are sometimes found in the woodlands but most frequently in the praries and open grounds.     they may be said generally to be a size larger than the common deer and that less than the mule deer. they are very seldom found in good order, or fat, even in the season which the common deer are so, and their flesh is inferior to any species of deer which I have evern seen.




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Hay, K.G., 2004, The Lewis and Clark Columbia River Water Trail, Timber Press, Portland;    "Recreation.gov" website, 2004;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2012