Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Hot Springs along the Columbia River"
Includes ... Bonneville Hot Springs ... Carson Hot Springs ... Collins Hot Springs ... Moffetts Hot Springs ... St. Martins Hot Springs ... Shipherds Hot Springs ... Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Carson Mineral Hot Springs Golf and Spa Resort, Carson, Washington. Image taken February 15, 2013.


Geothermal ...
"Moffetts Hot Spring (Bonneville Hot Springs) and St. Martin's Hot Spring to the east near the town of Carson have temperatures of 32C (89.6F) and 49C (120.2F) respectively. These hot springs are structurally controlled and are probably located at the intersection of more than one fracture trend. Recent drilling (2003) near Carson and to the east of the Wind River encountered the highest yet recorded geothermal waters in Washington 81C (178F) at 610 meters (2000 feet). The Ohanapeosh Formation underlies the area and is considered to be an aquaclude due to post depositional formations of zeolites and clays. ...

Source:    R. Gordon Bloomquist, Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, Washington, 2006, "Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Wa.", GHC Bulletin, December 2006


Hot Springs along the Columbia

  • Bonneville Hots Springs (Moffetts Hot Springs) ...
  • Carson Hot Springs (St. Martin's Hot Springs) ...
  • Collins Hot Springs ...
  • Government Mineral Springs ...
  • Shipherd's Hot Springs ...

Bonneville Hot Springs (Moffetts Hot Springs) ...
Moffetts Hot Spring, today the location of the Bonneville Hot Springs Resort north of North Bonneville, Washington, has water temperatures of 89.6F.

"Historical records indicate the springs were first used by the Native American Indian tribes living in the area and that tribes such as the Rogue RIver, Chitcoe, Calapoi, Klamath and Makah would travel to this treasured spot, bringing their sick and aged to bathe in, and drink the waters.

Discovery of the spring by European settlers was in 1880 by an old miner, Mr. R.J. Snow. A local merchant, Mr. Thomas Moffett, who was keeping a store at the Cascades at the time, recognized the value of the springs and acquired an interest in the springs. In 1881, Mr. Moffett built the Cascade Springs Hotel and in 1885 began selling the bottled water for 10 cents per bottle. ...

From its early beginnings the spring changed ownership and even name when the town changed from Moffetts, Washington to North Bonneville in 1934. It also saw several episodes of growth including the building of a new hotel in 1932 to replace the original structure that had been destroyed by fire. Sub-sequent development included the addition of a dozen cabins and a 38-acre campground with 75 electrical hookups.

However, by ... the late 1970s, there was little remaining of the glory days of the 20s and 30s. Only a few cabins remained and the entire facility was in disrepair ...

But, in 1990, ... a new owner ... was about to change all of that and Bonneville Hot Springs Resort is once again one of the jewels of the Columbia Gorge. ...

The Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, Spa and Converence Center was completed in 2002. The 12,000 square foot facility is located on the site of the original Moffetts Hotel and Bottling Works. ...

The geothermal water is used directly in some of the soaking tubs and large pools. As needed, the temperature is boosted using geothermal heat pumps. Heating for the facility is also provided through the use of geothermal heat pumps with heat being distributed through a forced-air system. ...

The rebuilding of the Bonneville Hot Springs Resort on the site of the original 1881 Moffett Hot Springs Hotel continues over a century of geothermal use in this scenic area of the Columbia River Gorge. ..."


Source:    R. Gordon Bloomquist, Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, Washington, 2006, "Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Wa.", GHC Bulletin, December 2006.


"It wasnt until 1880 when European settler, R.J. Snow, discovered the springs here at Bonneville and told his friend, Thomas Moffett. Moffett, who quickly recognized the value of our waters, built Cascade Springs Hotel in 1881, and in 1885, started selling the water for 10 cents per bottle. Researchers, such as renowned chemist J.H. Fisk and the US Chemical Assayers from Washington DC, performed numerous chemical analyses of the waters and all agreed that the mineral content in these waters have potential good health qualities. News of this spread quickly and people from all across the country came to drink and bathe in the waters that could help with their kidney complaints, liver problems, dyspepsia, rheumatism, dropsy or general debility.

But in the early 1930s, a fire destroyed Cascade Springs Hotel. Under new ownership, a new hotel was built in 1932 and was given the name Biba Hot Springs. It included a dozen cabins and a 38-acre campground with 75 electrical hookups. However, by the 1970s, there was little remaining of the glory days of the 20s and 30s. Only a few cabins remained and the entire facility was in disrepair.

It was during this time that current owner, Pete Cam, first visited Biba to find relief for his severe case of rheumatoid arthritis in his legs. After a week of soaking, he was able to walk on his own and to this day Pete still soaks in the mineral water daily and continues to enjoy good healthon his own feet.

Pete bought this property in 1989 and over the next 13 years worked to create a getaway place for people to enjoy the healing waters. On October 26, 2002, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort and Spa opened its doors for the first time. Since then we have seen countless guests use our waters for health, healing and wellness."


Source:    Bonneville Hot Springs Resort and Spa website, 2014.


Penny Postcard, Moffett's Hot Springs, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Moffetts Hot Springs, North Bonneville, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1930s, "Moffett's Hot Springs - North Bonneville - Wash." Smith. P-821. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2014, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2014, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2014, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.
Image, 2014, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
12th tee, Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Washington. Image taken March 21, 2014.


Carson Hot Springs (St. Martins Hot Springs) ...
St. Martin's Hot Spring, today a part of the Carson Mineral Hot Springs Spa and Golf Resort, located northeast of the Washington town of Carson, has water temperatures of 120F.

"Carson Hot Springs were discovered in 1876 by Isadore St. Martin. While on a hunting expedition with a friend, St. Martin noticed steam along the river and found the hot springs bubbling up among the rocks. They marked the spot and St. Martin later filed an Indian Homestead claim on the site.

St. Martin took his wife, Margaret, who suffered from neuralgia, to the hot springs. News of her relief spread rapidly and people began to arrive in great numbers to bathe in the springs. Those early bathers navigated up the Wind River to the original bathhouses.

In 1897, St. Martin began construction of the Historical Hotel, completing it in 1901. The cabins and bathhouse were added in 1923 and are still being used."


Source:    Carson Mineral Hot Springs Golf & Spa Resort website, 2013.


Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Carson Hot Springs Resort, Carson, Washington. Image taken February 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Hotel St. Martin, Carson Hot Springs Resort, Carson, Washington. Hotel St. Martin was built in 1901. The bathhouse is the building on the right. Image taken February 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Carson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
St. Martin's Hot Springs Hotel, Carson, Washington. Image taken February 15, 2013.


Collins Hot Springs ...
The Collins Hot Spring and the site of the Collins Hot Springs Resort were located near Collins Point, Washington, and today are under the waters of Bonneville Reservoir. The resort boasted spring waters of 120F.

COLLINS HOT SPRINGS.

"C.T. Belcher, who at one time was interested with the St. Charles people in developing a hot spring on the old Woodard place on Nelson Creek, has secured a 15-year lease from the O.R. & N. company, contingent upon finding within 90 days the vein of hot water at the Collins springs above high water mark. This Mr. Belcher is trying to do. If he succeeds he intends to put up a $15,000 hotel and bath house. -- Pioneer."


Source:    "Hood River Glacier", Hood River, Oregon, February 6, 1903, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers, University of Oregon Library Archives, 2015.


COLLINS HOT SPRINGS IS POPULAR RESORT,
Well-Equipped Baths and Modern Hotel Are Located on North Bank of Columbia.

"Marked improvements have been made at Collins Springs on the Columbia River, in Skamania County, Wash., and the management has more attractions to offer the vacationist this season than in previous years. A three-story annex to the hotel has been completed and is fitted with all modern conveniences, nearly all the rooms being equipped with private baths.

The entire hotel has been remodeled and refurnished ... New bathhouses have been constructed and are supplied with every feature for the convenience of patrons.

The resort is situated a few hundred feet from the Columbia River and in addition to the boating facilities on the river, aquatic sports and fishing are enjoyed on the three small lakes above the springs. A gasoline launch has been placed in commission and rides up and down the river are provided. The North Bank road passes through the property, the station being but two blocks from the hotel.

The waters of Collins Springs have medicinal qualities which, in addition to the restful surroundings, make the resort attractive. The estate is equipped with an electric lighting plant and at night the place is illuminated like the business district of the city. ..."


Source:    "The Oregonian", Portland, Oregon, June 11, 1911, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers, University of Oregon Library Archives, 2014.


Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Collins Hot Mineral Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1910s, "Hotel at Collins Hot Mineral Springs, Collins Wa." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, postmarked 1913, "Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Wash." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Veraqnda, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, postmarked 1913, "Veranda, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Wash." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


Government Mineral Springs ...
Government Mineral Springs was a developed hot springs resort located less than twenty miles north of the Columbia River.

"Recreational users were drawn to Government Mineral Springs early in the 20th century, and established informal camping grounds near the Guard Station. In 1910, S.D. Fox and the Star Brewing Company of Portland began construction of a 50-room hotel at the soda springs near Trapper Creek, which eventually became known as Government Mineral Springs. The popular resort boasted bath houses, Iron Mike Bubbling Springs, a dance pavilion, store, ice cream parlor, goldfish ponds, and flower gardens. Early advertisements for the resort claimed the mineral water spas were capable of curing physical ailments such as gallstones, rheumatism, diabetes and anemia, as well as stomach, liver, kidney, skin, and nervous disorders. In 1935, the hotel burned to the ground.

Camping remained popular at the site, and in 1937 and 1938 the Civilian Conservation Corps significantly expanded and developed the public campground. The guard station was built in 1937 by CCC enrollees from Company 944, based at Camp Hemlock, near the community of Stabler. The purpose of the guard station was for Forest Service administration of the campground and other local recreational use. Alfred Albert was the first guard stationed in the cabin. Mr. Albert, his wife, and two children lived at the guard station during the summers of 1937 and 1938."


Source:    U.S. Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot National Forest website, 2016.


Government Mineral Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
NEWSPAPER: Government Mineral Springs Hotel, Washington.
"Government Mineral Springs Hotel", Sunday Oregonian, August 15, 1920, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspaper Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016.


Shipherds Hot Springs ...
Health and Recreation
Spend Your Vacation at
--- THE FAMOUS ---
SHIPHERD'S
HOT SPRINGS

Carson, Wash., "In the Heart of the Cascade Mountains," and build up your health. Fishing, Dancing, Bowling, Quoits, Tennis and Croquet Grounds.

HOT MINERAL WATER SWIMMING POOL

Saddle ponies, Tally-ho for fishing and picnix parties. Many nice improvements made during past year.


Write for booklet.
E.L. SHIPHERD, Manager


Source:    "The Sunday Oregonian", July 12, 1914, courtesy Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016.

Penny Postcard, Shipherds Hot Springs Hotel, Carson, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Shipherd's Hot Springs Hotel, Carson, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1900s, "Shipherd's Hot Springs Hotel - Carson, Wash - #148." Undivided back. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Moffett's Hot Springs, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Moffetts Hot Springs, North Bonneville, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1930s, "Moffett's Hot Springs - North Bonneville - Wash." Smith. P-821. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.

Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Collins Hot Mineral Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1910s, "Hotel at Collins Hot Mineral Springs, Collins Wa." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, postmarked 1913, "Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Wash." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Veraqnda, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Washington.
Penny Postcard, postmarked 1913, "Veranda, Collins Hot Springs Hotel, Collins, Wash." In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.

Penny Postcard, Shipherds Hot Springs Hotel, Carson, Washington
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Shipherd's Hot Springs Hotel, Carson, Washington.
Penny Postcard, ca.1900s, "Shipherd's Hot Springs Hotel - Carson, Wash - #148." Undivided back. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]     passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,

[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream - Starvation Creek and Falls, the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls, Warren Creek and Falls, Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls, Lindsey Creek and Falls, and Summit Creek and Falls.]

a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]

[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]

are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],     the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...   :  here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round> Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, ...     The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood> which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on> near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.     I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...     I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark ...     a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped [near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.] is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye






Clark, April 13, 1806 ...
The loss of one of our large Canoes rendered it necessary to divide the loading and men of that Canoe between the remaining four, which was done and we loaded and Set out at 8 oClock A. M. [from their camp near Ashes Lake]     passed the village imediately above the rapids where only one house remains entire the other 8 haveing been taken down and moved to the opposit Side of the Columbia [downstream of Rock Creek and Stevenson, Washington] ...     Capt. Lewis with 2 of the Smallest Canoes of Sergt. Pryor & gibson and Crossed above the Rapids [Cascade Rapids] to the Village on the S E Side [east of Cascade Locks] with a view to purchase a Canoe of the nativs if possible. ...     I with the two large Canoes proceeded on up the N. W. Side with the intention of gitting to the Encampment of our hunters who was derected to hunt in the bottom above Crusats River [Wind River], and there wait the arrival of Capt. Lewis. I proceeded on to the bottom in which I expected to find the hunters but Could See nothing of them. the wind rose and raised the wavs to Such a hight that I could not proceed any further. we landed and I sent out Shields and Colter to hunt; Shields Shot two deer but Could get neither of them. I walkd. to Crusats river [Wind River] and up it a mile on my return to the party found that the wind had lulled and as we Could See nothing of our hunters. I deturmined to proceed on to the next bottom where I thought it probable they had halted at passed 2 P M Set out and proceeded on to the bottom 6 miles and halted at the next bottom formed a Camp and Sent out all the hunters [near Dog Mountain, between Collins Creek and Dog Creek].     I also walked out my self on the hills but saw nothing. on my return found Capt. Lewis at Camp with two canoes which he had purchased at the Y-ep-huh ...

I was convinced that the hunters must have been up River Cruzatt [Wind River]. despatched Sergt. Pryor with 2 men in a Canoe, with directions to assend Crusats River [Wind River] and if he found the hunters to assist them in with the meat. Jo: Shields returned about Sunset with two deer which he had killed, those were of the Black tail fallow Deer. <the> there appears to be no other Species of Deer in those mountains. We proceeded on 12 miles.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    "bonnevilleresort.com" website, 2014;    Historic Oregon Newspapers Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, 2016;    Bloomquist, R.G., 2006, Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, Washington, 2006, "Bonneville Hot Springs Resort, North Bonneville, Wa.", GHC Bulletin, December 2006;    "rootsweb.com" website, 2013;

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2015