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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Fort Vancouver, Washington"
Includes ... Fort Vancouver ... Fort Vancouver National Historic Site ... Vancouver National Historic Reserve ... Hudson Bay Company ... Jolie Prairie ... Kanaka Village ... National Register of Historic Places ...
Image, 2006, Palisades and Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.


Fort Vancouver ...
In 1825 Fort Vancouver was established along the Washington banks of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 106.5. The fort was first a fur-trading post for the British Hudson's Bay Company and was initially located on a ridge above the Columbia. In 1828 it was re-located on a beautiful prairie along the Columbia's banks known as "Jolie Prairie". Downstream of Fort Vancouver is the city of Vancouver, the Interstate 5 Bridge, and Vancouver Lake. Across the river and hugging the Oregon side is Hayden Island, with the mouth of the Willamette River being slightly downstream. Upstream of Fort Vancouver is Pearson Field and upstream across the Columbia is the Portland International Airport. Fifteen miles upstream is located the "Tea Prairie", the location of today's Camas and Washougal.

Hudson's Bay Company ...
Early Fort Vancouver was a fur-trading post for the British Hudson's Bay Company.
[More]

Vancouver National Historic Reserve ...
In 1996 the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site became part of the broader Vancouver National Historic Reserve, encompassing acreage from many historical areas around the fort, including the fort, Officer's Row, Vancouver Barracks, and Pearson Field.
[More]

Image, 2005, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Vancouver, Washington. Entrance sign to the Fort Vancouver NHS. The fort's bastion is in the background. On the right is the arch of the Interstate 5 Bridge, connecting Vancouver, Washington, with Portland, Oregon. Image taken March 18, 2005.
Image, 2004, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver, Washington. The fort's palisade was built not for protection of the fort, but to protect trading items from theft. View is looking out of the gates towards the Vancouver Barracks. Image taken March 7, 2004.


Fort Vancouver ... History ...
Fort Vancouver was established in 1825 by the Hudson's Bay Company, at Jolie Prairie, part of the floodplain of the Columbia River. Fearing Indian attacks, the Fort was first built away from the Columbia, on the bluff overlooking the river. Today this is the location of the Washington School for the Deaf, located at the intersection of Evergreen Boulevard and Grand Avenue.

Simpson's early correspondence refers to Jolie Prairie as "Belle Vue Point" apparently in the mistaken belief it was the same point of land named by Lieutenant Broughton of the British navy, when he surveyed the river in 1792. Broughton's "Belle Vue Point" is located downstream on the eastern tip of Sauvie Island.

In 1829 the Hudson's Bay Company moved the Fort to a lower location, known as "Jolie Prairie".

"... In 1829, with no significant threat materializing from the Chinook, the initial palisade was abandoned and a new site for the palisade was selected on the river plain known as Jolie Prairie and later as Fort Plain. Driving the move was the decision by HBC Governor George Simpson to make Fort Vancouver the headquarters for the HBC Columbia Department. The Fort Plain site provided open land with rich soils suitable for cultivated fields and pasture, close to the river for access to fresh water and transportation, but above the flood zone. The dense conifer forest to the west and north provided a ready supply of timber, while the freshwater pond near the shore became the nexus for building and other industrial activities. Six miles to the east, streams provided a power source for the first grist and saw mills in the Pacific Northwest. ... At the height of its development on Fort Plain, 1844-1846, Fort Vancouver included the palisade at its core, with other landscape features radiating out from this center. Cultivated fields, with prairie or pasture beyond, surrounded the palisade to the south, southeast, east and northeast. Directly north and west of the palisade were extensive gardens and orchards. Further to the west and southwest extended the employee village (Village), also known as Kanaka or Company Village, where numerous small dwellings and outbuildings housed the Company's employees. ..." [U.S. National Park Service website, 2005, Fort Vancouver]

This second Fort became the headquarters and principal supply depot for the Hudson Bay Company's "Department of the Columbia" and the center for the Northwest fur trade. It also became the western terminus of the Oregon Trail. The freshwater ponds have long since disappeared and the location of the sawmill is now the location of the Vancouver Trout Hatchery.

In 1849 the Hudson's Bay Company transfered its headquarters from Fort Vancouver north to Fort Victoria in Canada, leaving behind a small contingent of men. A U.S. Army post was established in May 1849 next to the Hudson Bay Company "fort". This new Army Post was called "Columbia Barracks" until 1853 when it was renamed "Fort Vancouver". In 1879 the Army Post was again renamed, this time to "Vancouver Barracks".

In June 1860 the British totally abandoned the Fort Vancouver and moved, leaving the fort and village to the Americans. The Army occupied some of the buildings, but fire destroyed all visible traces of the establishment by 1866.

In 1966 Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Site - #66000370).

Today Fort Vancouver is a National Historic Site and part of the Vancouver National Historic Reserve. Archaeological digs and Fort restoration have taken place, allowing the public to learn about the Fort.


[MORE HISTORY and Journal Entries]


Image, 2006, The First Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sign, The First Fort Vancouver, Washington. The first Fort Vancouver was located at the location of today's Washington State School for the Deaf. Image taken March 12, 2006.
Image, 2006, Palisades and Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver, Washington. The corner "bastion" was built in 1845. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Covered in grapes. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Hudsons Bay Historic Neighborhood sign, click to enlarge
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Sign, "Hudson's Bay Historic Neighborhood". Image taken August 26, 2006.


The Village ...
The fields west of Fort Vancouver once was a thriving community of Hudson's Bay employees. Often referred to as the "Kanaka Village" or "Company Village", the community once housed 300 employees, with the majority being French-Canadians, Indians, Eupropeans, and Hawaiians.
[More]

Image, 2011, Fort Vancouver, Kanaka Village, click to enlarge
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Information Sign, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 2, 2011.


Sawmills and Gristmills ...
Seven miles upstream of Fort Vancouver was the location of the Hudson Bay Company's sawmills, now the location of the Vancouver Trout Hatchery and the Columbia Springs Environmental Education Center. Another 2 miles upstream was the Fort's gristmill, near the location of today's Image, Washington.
[More]

Image, 2011, Fort Vancouver, click to enlarge
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Hudson's Bay Company Sawmills sign, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 25, 2008.


The Museum ...
On the eastern edge of the Vancouver Barrack's Parade Grounds is a museum, displaying artifacts and history of the Fort Vancouver area.
[More]

Image, 2011, Fort Vancouver, Museum, click to enlarge
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Museum dislplays, Fort Vancouver Museum, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 2, 2011.


Fort Vancouver Images
The Bastion ...

Image, 2006, Palisades and Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.

The walls of Fort Vancouver were known as the "Palisades" and were not for defence, but instead were built to protect the trade goods from theft. A tower known as a "Bastion" was not a part of the original fort but was built in 1845 on the northwest corner of the Palisade. Three floors exist, with the top floor housing 8 three-pounder cannons.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bastion window, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.

Note cannon muzzle behind the glass. Gun slits are on the top and sides of the window. Glass is modern addition for visitor safety.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bastion cannons, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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View of the Fort from the Bastion gun slit, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Pearson Field as seen from the Bastion gun slit, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fort Vancouver Orchard, as seen from the Bastion gun slit, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, View from Bastion, Fort Vancouver, click to enlarge
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"Kanaka Village" location, Fort Vancouver, Washington. View from Fort Vancouver's Bastion, looking towards the Interstate 5 Bridge crossing the Columbia River. Image taken August 27, 2006.

The fields west of Fort Vancouver once was a thriving community of Hudson's Bay employees. Often referred to as the "Kanaka Village", the community once housed 300 employees, with the majority being French-Canadians, Indians, Eupropeans, and Hawaiians.


Chief Factor's House ...

Image, 2004, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken March 7, 2004.

"... At one end is Dr. M'Laughlin's house, built after the model of the French Canadian, of one story, weather-boarded and painted white. It has a piazza and small flower-beds, with grape and other vines, in front. ..."    [Wilkes, 1841]
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Front outside, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Grapes cover the front porch. Image taken August 27, 2006.

"... Between the steps are two old cannons on sea-carriages, with a few shot, to spead defiance to the natives, who no doubt look upon them as very formidable weapons of destruction. Imention these, as they are the only warlike instruments to my knowledge that are within the pickets of Vancouver, which differs from all the other forts in having no bastions, galleries, or loop-holes. ..."    [Wilkes, 1841]
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Cannons, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Cannon, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Cannon balls, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Front porch, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Grapes cover the front porch. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside sitting room, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sleeping room, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.


Views around Fort Vancouver ...

Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Information, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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At compound entrance, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Fur storage building is in the background. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Indian Trade-Dispensary Store from the Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Blacksmith's Shop is partially visible on the left. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Indian Trade-Dispensary Store, Fort Vancouver, Washington. The Fur storage building is in the background on the right. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Fur Storage Building, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside Fur Storage, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside Fur Storage, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside Kitchen, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Kitchen, making soup, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside Kitchen, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Inside Kitchen, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Bakehouse Ovens, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, New Office, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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"New Office", Fort Vancouver, Washington. Tall belfry is behind the "New Office". Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, New Office, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Interior "New Office", Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, New Office, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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"New Office" door, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, New Office, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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"New Office" (left) and Jail (right), Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Well, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Grape-vine covered Chief Factor's House is on the left and the Wash House is behind the well. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Palisade and Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Palisade and Bastion, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.

The Palisade was expanded at least five times. By 1845 the palisade enclosed an area 734 feet by 318 feet, and was built of 15-feet-high Douglas fir posts. The Bastion was built in 1845 and used to protect against threats and to fire salutes to ships.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Chief Factor's House from the Indian Trade-Dispensary Store, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Flag, Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.


The Garden ...

Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Garden, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.

During Fort Vancouver times nearly 2,500 acres were fenced and under cultivation with peas, oats, barley, wheat, and vegetables. The orchard included apples, pears, peaches, plums, and cherries. Livestock consited of cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, and goats.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Garden, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Garden flowers, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.
Image, 2006, Orchard, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Orchard, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 27, 2006.

The orchard included apples, pears, peaches, plums, and cherries.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 4, 1805 ...
A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock [from their camp on the north side of Government Island, approximately across from Fisher's Landing], one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island [Government Island] to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered     (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this diamond Island [Government Island] is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel [Lewis and Clark show two large islands on their maps, both in today's Government Island area], and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands [even today the Government Island reach is a complex of many islands] as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; [since 1983 the Interstate 205 bridge crosses Government Island connecting Oregon to Washington]     on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: [near Portland International Airport]; ...     This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation ...

at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island [Hayden Island] nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie [Jolie Prairie, today the location of Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark. Lewis and Clark camp on this prairie on their return] in which there is a pond [one of the many ponds which use to dot this area] opposit on the Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, ...     joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. ...

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with [Tomahawk pipe, thus giving rise to the name Tomahawk Island] ...    we proceeded on

[The men have passed through the area which, 20 years later, Dr. John McLoughlin would choose for a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, later to become Fort Vancouver and eventually the city of Vancouver, Washington.]

met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of <man &> a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the <bow & Stern> of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man [Lewis and Clark then named Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island"]     two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island [Hayden Island] which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island [the location of Vancouver Landing and since 1917 the Interstate 5 Bridge connecting Oregon to Washington State], three Small Islands at its lower point [The downstream end of Hayden Island was at one time composed of small islands. One of these, Pearcy Island, would become today's Kelley Point.]. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd. Side [it wasn't until Lewis and Clark's return trip they would discover the mouth of the Willamette River] as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower [Sauvie Island is located at this stretch, but it is not until the return that Lewis and Clark recognize it as a separate island], and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river [Sandy River] passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side [on Sauvie Island], near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien [Mount St. Helens, Washington] which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25 E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid [Umatilla Rapids, Captain Clark actually saw Mount Adams] on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe- about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side [Post Office Lake vicinity, today within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side ...

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side [Portland's West Hills'] which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1 miles wide, and current jentle. opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island [one of the small sandy islands prevelent in this stretch of the Columbia. Today the Willow Bar Islands on the east side of Sauvie Island lie across from Post Office Lake.] the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day






Clark, March 30, 1806 ...
we got under way verry early [from their camp near Wapato Portage] and had not proceeded to the head of the island [Bachelor Island] before we met with the three men of the Clan-nar-min-a-mon's who met us yesterday brackfast at the upper point of the Island [Bachelor Island] we met Several of the Clackstar and Cath-lah-cum-up in two canoes. Soon after we were overtaken by Several Canoes of different tribes who reside on each Side of the river the three above Tribes and the Clh-in-na-ta cathy-lah-nah-qui-up & Cath-lah-com-mah-tup reside on each Side of Wappato inlet [Multnomah Channel] and back of Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] which Island is formed by a Small Chanel which passes from the Lower part of Image Canoe Island [Hayden Island] into an inlet which makes in from the S W. Side, and receves the water of a Creek which heads with the Kil a mox River. this wappato Island [Sauvie Island] is about 18 or 20 Miles long and in places from 6 to 10 miles wide high & furtile with ponds on different parts of it in which the nativs geather Wappato. nearly opposit the upper point of the Isld. behing which we encamped last night, or on the Wappato Isld. is Several Camps of the nativs catching Sturgion. about 5 miles Still higher up and on the N E. Side we halted for brackfast at the place which We had encamped the 4th of November last [near Post Office Lake, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge]. here we were visited by several canoes of Indians from two Towns a Short distance above on the Wappato Island [Sauvie Island]. the 1st of those Tribes Call themselves Clan-nah-quah and Situated about 2 miles above us, the other about a mile above Call themselves Mult-no-mah ...     at 10 a. m. we Set out and had not proceeded far before we came to a landing place where there was Several large canoes hauled up, and Sitting in a canoe, appearantly waiting our arival with a view to join the fleet indian who was then along Side of us. this man informed he was a Shoto and that his nation resided a little distance from the river. we landed and one of the indians pointed to the Shoto village which is Situated back of Pond [Vancouver Lake] which lies parrelal with the river on the N E. Side nearly opposit the Clan-nah quah village. here we were also joined by Several Canoes loaded with the natives from the Island who Continued to accompany us untill about 4 oClock when they all returned and we proceeded on to the place the Indians Stole my Tomahawk 4th Novr. last [Hayden Island] and Encamped in a Small Prarie ["Jolie Prairie" where Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark would some day be located] above a large Pond on N. E and opposit the Center of image Canoe Island [Hayden Island]. capt Lewis walked out and Saw Several deer. Jo. Field Shot at Elk he killed and brought in a fine duck. ...     we made 22 Miles only to day the wind and a Strong current being against us all day, with rain. discovered a high mountain S E. Covered with Snow which we call Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon]





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: Alley, B.F., and Munro-Fraser, J.P., 1885, History of Clarke County, Washington Territory: compiled from the most authentic sources: also biographical sketches of its pioneers and prominent citizens, Portland, Oregon; Early Canadiana Online website, 2006, 2007; Gray, W.H., 1870, A history of Oregon, 1792-1849, drawn from personal observation and authentic information; National Libary of Canada and National Archives of Canada website, 2005, Canadian Institute of Historical Microreproductions; National Register of Historic Places website, 2005; NOAA Office of Coast Surveys website, 2005; Parker, Rev. S., A.M., 1838, Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains, Under the Direction of the A.B.C.F.M. Performed in the Years 1835, '36, and '37, ..., published by the Author, Ithaca, N.Y. Palmer, J., Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains to the mouth of the Columbia River, made during the years 1845 and 1846, IN: Thwaites, R.G., Early Western Travels, 1748-1846. U.S. GenWeb Project website, 2006, "History of the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington, 1889, Vol.1"; U.S. National Park Service website, 2004, 2010, 2011, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site; Washington State's Secretary of State website, 2007.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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August 2011