Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
Home Regions Campsites Penny Postcards My Corps of Discovery Image Index Links About This Site Main Menu
Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Deschutes River, Oregon"
Includes ... Deschutes River ... "Clarks River" ... "Towarnahiooks River" ... "Sho-sho-ne River" ... "Riviere des Chutes" ... "Tou-et-ka" ... Oregon Trail Deschutes River Crossing ... Heritage Landing State Park ... Deschutes River State Recreation Area ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream towards it's mouth, from Heritage Landing State Park. Image taken May 12, 2014.


Deschutes River ...
The Deschutes River begins on the east slope of the Cascade Mountains southwest of Bend, Oregon, flows north through Central Oregon, and enters the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 204. Five miles upstream is Biggs Junction, Oregon and the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge, connecting Oregon with Washignton. Across from the mouth of the Deschutes hugging the Washington shore, is Miller Island, and slightly upstream on the Washington side is the Maryhill Museum and the location of Maryhill, Washington. Downstream on the Washington side is the small community of Wishram. On the Oregon side of the Columbia River, west of the Deschutes drainages rises the basalts of Fulton Ridge while further downstream lie Celilo Park, the Oregon Trunk Railroad Bridge, and The Dalles Dam. Fifteen miles downstream is the community of The Dalles.

"River of the falls" ...
Early fur traders called the Deschutes drainage "Riviere des Chutes", French for "river of the falls", because of its close proximity to the "La Grand Dalle de la Columbia", The Dalles.

Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream towards it's mouth, from Deschutes River State Recreation Area. Image taken May 12, 2014.


Deschutes River Basin ...
According to the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website, (2004), the Deschutes River drainage covers approximately 10,500 square miles and is second in size only to the Willamette River drainage in northwestern Oregon. The Deschutes Basin is bounded on the west by the Cascade Mountains, on the south by high elevation pine forest, on the east by the high desert plateau, and on the north by the Columbia River, and is separated into upper and lower sections. The lower section of the Deschutes reaches the Columbia at River Mile (RM) 205, and covers approximately 2,700 square miles with 760 miles of perennial streams and 1,440 miles of intermittent streams. It drops in elevation from 1,393 feet at the Pelton Dam (RM 100), to 160 feet at its confluence with the Columbia River. The major geologic formations of the lower Deschutes area include The Dalles, John Day, and Clarno formations and basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Loess, volcanic ash and pumice have been laid down during recent geologic times. Much of the original deposits of loess and ash have been eroded from the uplands and deposited along the streams.

Image, 2005, Mouth of the Deschutes River, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mouth of the Deschutes River, Oregon. View from Washington State Highway 14. Miller Island is tip in lower left corner. Image taken May 24, 2005.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River, Oregon, looking downstream towards it's mouth towards the Columbia River. View from old Oregon Highway 30 heading west. Image taken May 12, 2014.


Lewis and Clark and the Deschutes River ...
On their journey down the Columbia River in 1805, Lewis and Clark decline to name the Deschutes River, writing they will name it on their return journey. Later in the passage however, Clark does call the river the "Towarnehiooks River", the Indian words for calling the river "the River on which the Snake Indians live".

"... this River haveing no Indian name that we could find out, except "the River on which the Snake Indians live," we think it best to leave the nameing of it untill our return ... " [Clark, October 22, 1805]

"... we proceeded on pass the mouth of this river at which place it appears to discharge 1/4 as much water as runs down the Columbia.    at two miles below this River passed Eight Lodges on the Lower point of the Rock Island aforesaid     at those Lodges we saw large logs of wood which must have been rafted down the To war-ne hi ooks River, ...     the upper mouth of Towarnehiooks River the comencement of the pitch of the Great falls ..." [Clark, October 22, 1805]

On Clark's tabluation made during their winter at Fort Clatsop, he writes

"... the Towahnahiooks River from the Lard Side 180 yd ..." [Clark, winter 1805-1806]

On their route map (Moulton, vol.1, map#77) the river appears as "Clark's River".

In his journal entries for 1806, Captain Lewis used "Clarks River". Captain Clark used "Clarks River" in his first draft and "To war nah hi ooks" river in his final draft.

"... after dinner we proceeded on about four miles to a village of 9 mat lodges of the Enesher a little below the entrance of Cark's river ..." [Lewis, April 21, 1806]

"... a 4 P M loaded up & Set out     the Canoes also proceed on about 3 miles opposit to the Mouth of Clarks river ... [Clark, April 21, 1806, first draft]

"... after dinner we proceeded on about 5 Miles to a Village of 9 Mat Lodges of the Enesher, a little below the enterance of To war nah hi ooks river and encamped: ..." [Clark, April 21, 1806]

Both Lewis's and Clark's entries for April 22, 1806, use "Clarks River". On April 22, 1806 Captain Clark stood on a ridge near Haystack Butte, Washington, and looked across the Columbia River to the south.

"... dureing the time the front of the party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South from Mt. Hood as far as I could See. ... Clarks river which mouthes imedeately opposit to me forks at about 18 or 20 miles, the West fork runs to the Mt Hood and the main branch Runs from S.E. ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]

Patrick Gass and the Deschutes River ...
Patrick Gass calls the Deschutes River the "Sho-sho-ne River" in his passages for October 22, 1805 and April 21, 1806. Moulton (2007) states (April 21, 1806) that Gass's name refers to the "Snake" (Paiute) Indians living on the river, whom he supposes to be the same as the Shoshones (Snakes) the party encountered in Idaho.

"... At 10 o'clock we came to a large island, where the river has cut its way through the point of a high hill. Opposite to this island a large river comes in on the south side, called by the natives the Sho-Sho-ne or Snake-Indian river, and which as large rapids close to its mouth. This, or the Ki-moo-ee-nem, is the same river, whose head waters we saw at the Snake nation ..." [Gass, October 22, 1805]

"... At 10 o'clock we set out from the first narrows with 3 horses of our own and one we borrowed, and 2 canoes all loaded heavy. I went with three other men in the canoes, and had dome difficulty in passing the short narrows. About 3 in the afternoon we arrived at the great falls of Columbia, where we met with Captain Clarke and the men that were with him. Here we got another horse; carried our canoes and baggage round the falls and halted for dinner. ... We halted here two hours and then proceeded on again. The party that went by land had to leave the river, and take out to the hill a part of the way. I crossed with my canoe to the south side where there is the best water, and passed a large rock island, opposite to which the Sho-sho-ne river flows in from the south. We went on till dark, and then run our small canoe among some willows, and laid down to sleep. ..." [Gass, April 21, 1806]

Early Deschutes River ...
Lewis and Clark first pass the Deschutes River on October 22, 1805, and call it the "Towarnehiooks River", the Indian words for calling the river "the River on which the Snake Indians live". Elsewhere in their writings the river is called "Clarks River" and "Sho-sho-ne River". (For more on the Deschutes and Lewis and Clark see passage above.)

Early fur traders called the Deschutes drainage "Riviere des Chutes", French for "river of the falls", because of its close proximity to the "La Grand Dalle de la Columbia" The Dalles.

In 1812 Wilson Price Hunt writes the Indian's call the river "Tou-et-ka".

"... We camped on the 30th opposite the mouth of the Deschutes, called Tou-et-ka by the Indians. They came in great numbers to dance in honor of our arrival, but their multitude worried me. I pretended to be ill and asked that I be left alone. In a short time they complied with my wishes. (14 miles) ..." [Wilson Price Hunt, January 30, 1812]

In 1838 the "Map of the United States Territory of Oregon West of the Rocky Mountains, ..." had the river labeled "Chutes or Falls R.".


Deschutes River in 1940 ...
From the Oregon State Archives "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon":

"... MILLER, 84.4 m. (168 alt., 11 pop.), is a grain shipping station. US 30 crosses the Deschutes River, 85.3 m., on the CHIEF DUC-SAC-HI BRIDGE, an arched concrete structure named for a chief of the Wasco tribe, who operated the first ferry across the river. The Deschutes, often designated on old maps as Falls River, has been an important fishing stream for both Indians and whites. Lewis and Clark found that the river, "which is called by the Indians Towahnahiooks," was "divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands covered by a low growth of timber." ..."


Image, 2004, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking towards mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River, Oregon, looking towards mouth. Looking towards the mouth of the Deschutes River, and the old Oregon Highway 30 bridge across the Deschutes. View from Heritage Landing State Park, left bank of the Deschutes. Image taken March 20, 2004.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking upstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River, Oregon, looking upstream. View from old Oregon Highway 30. Boat launch from Heritage Landing State Park is visible on the left bank of the Deschutes (right view in image). Image taken May 12, 2014.


Deschutes River, etc.

  • Deschutes River State Recreation Area ...
  • Deschutes State Park in 1965 ...
  • Heritage Landing State Park ...
  • Oregon Scenic Waterway and Federal Wild and Scenic River ...
  • Oregon Trail Deschutes River Crossing ...


Deschutes River State Recreation Area ...
Two Oregon State Parks and Recreation Areas are located at the mouth of the Deschutes River. Heritage Landing State Park is on the left bank of the Deschutes River (west side), just upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River, while the Deschutes River State Recreation Area is on the right bank (east side).

Park History:

"Acquired between 1963 and 1983 by purchase from various owners, transfer by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and gifts of land from the Oregon Wildlife Heritage Foundation. The original tract for the area was 30 acres purchased in 1963 from the Columbia-Deschutes Power Company. This tract, with some of the later acquisitions, forms the developed portion of a riverside recreation complex. Adjoining the State Recreation Area is the Deschutes River Scenic Waterway. The lower Deschutes River from Pelton Dam to the Columbia River, some 104 river miles, was designated an Oregon Scenic Waterway in 1970. The purpose is to protect and enhance scenic, recreational, fish and wildlife values along the river while allowing public use of the river for boating, fishing and riverside camping. The Oregon Parks and Recreation Department manages the waterway in cooperation with Sherman and Wasco counties, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Department, State Marine Board and Oregon State Police."

Acreage: 708.62


Source:    Oregon State Parks website, 2014, Deschutes River State Recreation Area, Park History.


Image, 2004, Deschutes River State Park from Heritage Landing, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River State Recreation Area as seen from Heritage Landing State Park. Image taken March 20, 2004.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River State Recreation Area, on the east bank of the Deschutes River, Oregon. Image taken May 12, 2014.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Great Horned Owls, "mom" and kid, Deschutes River State Recreation Area, Oregon. Image taken May 12, 2014.


Deschutes State Park in 1965 ...
DESCHUTES STATE PARK

Deschutes State Park is located on Interstate Highway 80N, at the confluence of the Deschutes and Columbia Rivers, 17 miles east of The Dalles at the Wasco-Sherman County line.

Discussions on this proposed project were started in 1955. Detailed studies were made in 1959 to determine possible use, entrances, construction costs, effect a possible power project with a large fluctuating discharge might have on the safety of the stream for park users, the sediment carried by the river, etc.

The prime movers in the project are The Dalles Chamber of Commerce and many interested people living along the banks and inland from the Columbia River.

The first land obtained was 30 acres, located on the east side of Deschutes River, purchased from the Columbia-Deschutes Power Company on January 25, 1963. An additional 5.10-acre tract was purchased on April 25, 1963, from Don and Dorathen Miller. These tracts adjoin and the latter contained a small home and some other buildings."


Source:    Chester H. Armstrong (compiler), 1965, "History of the Oregon State Parks: 1917-1963, published by Oregon State Parks.



Heritage Landing State Park ...
Two Oregon State Parks and Recreation Areas are located at the mouth of the Deschutes River. Heritage Landing State Park is on the left bank of the Deschutes River (west side), just upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River, while the Deschutes River State Recreation Area is on the right bank (east side). Heritage Landing is a popular boat launch and day use area which provides river access to both the Columbia River and the Deschutes River.

Park History:

"The first tract of land was acquired in 1963, when the state purchased thirty acres at the mouth of the Deschutes from the Columbia-Deschutes Power Company. Between 1977 and 1983, the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department acquired 134.37 acres of frontage lands abutting the scenic waterway through transactions with private owners, using funds raised by the Wildlife Heritage Foundation. Between 1998 and 2002, the land was officially deeded to OPRD by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT)."

Acreage: 708.62


Source:    Oregon State Parks website, 2014, Heritage Landing State Park, Park History.


Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking upstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Heritage Landing State Park, Deschutes River, Oregon. Image taken May 12, 2014.
Image, 2004, Heritage Landing State Park and the Deschutes River, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Deschutes River from Heritage Landing State Park. Image taken March 20, 2004.


Oregon Scenic Waterway and Federal Wild and Scenic River ...
"The Lower Deschutes River was designated an Oregon Scenic Waterway in 1970 and a Federal Wild and Scenic River in 1988. The river runs through a deep rimrock-lined canyon that ranges from 900 feet to 2,600 feet in depth. The elevation drops from 1,393 feet at Pelton Reregulation Dam to 160 feet at its confluence with the Columbia River. The average gradient is 13 feet per mile and is relatively constant throughout its length. The most significant drops in gradient are Sherars Falls (River Mile 44), with a vertical drop of 15 feet, and Whitehorse Rapids (River Mile 75), with a vertical drop of approximately 35-40 feet over one mile. Within this canyon you will experience an incredible geologic and cultural history and a diverse community of fish, wildlife and vegetation."

Source:    "Recreation.gov" website, 2014


Oregon Trail and the Deschutes River crossing ...
Oregon Trail pioneers had to cross the Deschutes River on their way from Missouri to the Willamette River Valley.
[More]

"Emigrants frequently camped at the mouth of the Deschutes River before attempting the difficult crossing of this "considerable tributary of the Columbia." Some parties crossed at the mouth of the river, using rocky islands as stepping-stones. Wagons were usually floated across, while the animals swam. Joel Palmer wrote a detailed description of the crossing on September 28, 1845: "The river is about one hundred yards wide, and the current very rapid; the stream is enclosed by lofty cliffs of basaltic rock. Four hundred yards from the Columbia is a rapid or cascade. Within the distance of thirty yards its descent is from fifteen to twenty feet. The current of this stream was so rapid and violet, and withal of such depth, as to require us to ferry it. Some of the companies behind us, however, drove over at its mouth by crossing on a bar.""

(Note:, the original river crossing is now submerged by Lake Celilo.)

Source:    U.S. National Park Service, Comprehensive Management and Use Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement, Oregon National Historic Trail.

"River crossings were difficult for Oregon Trail emigrants and the Deschutes River was no exception. John McAllister, emigrant of 1852, warned "danger attends the crossage here ... many large rocks and at the same time a very rapid current."   Emigrants, wagons and livestock all had to cross the river and casualties were common. Amelia Hadley, emigrant of 1851, noted a canoes "bottom side up, with a pair of boots tied in the captern."   Early emigrants often hired local Indians to assist at this river crossing. During the 1850s pioneer entrepreneurs seized control of the ford and offered expensive ferry service. A toll bridge was established by 1864."

Source:    Information sign, Oregon Trail kiosk, Deschutes River State Recreation Area.


Image, 2011, Deschutes River, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Oregon Trail Deschutes River Crossing, Oregon. Image taken January 30, 2011.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking upstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Oregon Trail kiosk, Deschutes River State Recreation Area, Deschutes River, Oregon. Image taken May 12, 2014.
Image, 2014, Deschutes River, Oregon, looking upstream, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Information sign, Oregon Trail kiosk, Deschutes River State Recreation Area, Deschutes River, Oregon. Image taken May 12, 2014.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. The Penny Postcard today has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Deschutes River Railroad Bridge, ca.1910, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Bridge crossing the Deschutes River, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Bridge over the Deschutes River, Oregon, On the Line of the O.W. R. & N. Co." Published by the Oregon Post Card Co., Portland, Oregon. Card #1387. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Deschutes River Palisades, ca.1910, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Deschutes River Palisades, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Palisades of Deschutes River, Oregon. On the line of the O.W.R. & N. Co." Published by the Portland Post Card Co., Portland, Oregon. Card #1395. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 22, 1805 ...
A fine morning calm and fare we Set out [downstream of the John Day Dam] at 9 oClock passed a verry bad rapid [today the location of the "Sam Hill Memorial Bridge", U.S. Highway 97 crossing from Biggs Junction, Oregon, to Maryhill, Washington. The rapid, which was labeled "Five-Mile Rapid" in 1858, is now under the waters of the Lake Celilo, the reservoir behind The Dalles Dam.] at the head of an Island close under the Stard. Side [???], above this rapid on the Stard. Side is Six Lodges of nativs Drying fish [Maryhill vicinity], at 9 mls. passed a bad rapid [Deschutes Rapid, also under the waters of Lake Celilo] at the head of a large Island [Miller Island] of high, uneaven [rocks], jutting over the water, a Small Island in a Stard. Bend [???] opposit the upper point, on which I counted 20 parcels of dryed and pounded fish; on the main Stard Shore opposit to this Island five Lodges of Indians are Situated Several Indians in Canoes killing fish with gigs [Haystack Butte, Columbia Hills, vicinity], <and nets> &c. opposit the center of this Island of rocks [Miller Island] which is about 4 miles long we discovered the enterence of a large river on the Lard. Side [Deschutes River] which appeared to Come from the S. E. - we landed at Some distance above the mouth of this river [Deschutes River] and Capt. Lewis and my Self Set out to view this river above its mouth, as our rout was intersepted by a deep narrow Chanel which runs out of this river into the Columbia a little below the place we landed, leaveing a high dry rich Island of about 400 yards wide and 800 yards long here we Seperated, I proceeded on to the river and Struck it at the foot of a verry Considerable rapid [Deschutes Rapids], here I beheld an emence body of water Compressd in a narrow Chanel of about 200 yds in width, fomeing over rocks maney of which presented their tops above the water, when at this place Capt. Lewis joined me haveing ....     at about two miles above this River appears to be confined between two high hils below which it divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands covered with a low groth of timber, and has a rapid as far as the narrows three Small Islands in the mouth of this River, <we returned> this River haveing no Indian name that we could find out, except "the River on which the Snake Indians live," we think it best to leave the nameing of it untill our return [Deschutes River].

we proceeded on pass the mouth of this river [Deschutes River] at which place it appears to discharge 1/4 as much water as runs down the Columbia. at two miles below this River passed Eight Lodges on the Lower point of the Rock Island [Miller Island] aforesaid at those Lodges we saw large logs of wood which must have been rafted down the To war-ne hi ooks River [Deschutes River], below this Island [Miller Island] on the main Stard Shore is 16 Lodges of nativs; here we landed a fiew minits to Smoke, the lower point of one Island opposit [???] which heads in the mouth of Towarnehiooks River [Deschutes River] which I did not observe untill after passing these lodges     about 1/2 a mile lower passed 6 more Lodges on the Same Side and 6 miles below the upper mouth of Towarnehiooks River [Deschutes River] the comencement of the pitch of the Great falls [Celilo Falls], opposit on the Stard. Side is 17 Lodges of the nativs [near Wishram, Washington]     we landed and walked down accompanied by an old man to view the falls [Celilo Falls], and the best rout for to make a portage ...     we made 19 miles to day






Clark, April 22, 1806 ...
last night 2 of our horses broke loose and Strayed of at a Short distance. at 7 oClock we loaded up and Set out [their camp was near Haystack Butte], haveing previously Sent off the Canoe with Colter and Potts we had not arived at the top of the hill which is 200 feet [Columbia Hills] before Shabonos horse threw off his load and went with great Speed down the hill to the Village ...     and delayed Capt. Lewis and the rear party ...     dureing the time the front of the party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South [Cascade Mountains] from Mt. Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] as far as I could See. I also discovered the top of Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is Covered with Snow and is S 10 W. Mt. Hood is S. 30 W. the range of mountains are Covered with timber and also Mt Hood to a sertain hite. The range of Mountains has Snow on them. I also discovered some timbered land in a S. derection from me, Short of the mountains. Clarks river which mouthes imedeately opposit to me [Deschutes River] forks at about 18 or 20 miles, the West fork runs to the Mt Hood and the main branch Runs from S. E.     after Capt Lewis Came up we proceeded on through a open ruged plain about 8 miles to a Village of 6 Houses on the river. here we observed our 2 Canoes passing up on the opposit Side and the Wind too high for them to join us. I halted at the mouth of a run [Historians suggest perhaps Harley Canyon] above the village near Some good grass to let the horses graze and for the party to dine. ...     after we proceeded on up the river about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat Lodges. here our Chopunnish guide informed me that the next villg. was at Some distance and that we Could not get to it to night, and that there was no wood to be precured on this Side. a man offered to Sell us a horse for a Canoe. just at the moment we discovered one of our Canoes on the opposit Side. we concluded to Camp here all night with the expectation of precureing some horses [across from the John Day River]. ...     the air I find extreemly Cold which blows Continularly from Mt. Hoods Snowey regions. ...     we made 14 miles to day with the greatest exirtion. Serjt. Gass & R. Fields joined us with one Canoe this evening. the other Canoe with Colter & pots is a head.





Columbia PlateauReturn to
Menu
 



SNAKE RIVER CONFLUENCE | COLUMBIA PLATEAU
COLUMBIA RIVER GORGE | VANCOUVER PLAINS | JOURNEY TO THE PACIFIC
CAMPSITES


HOME | REGIONS | PENNY POSTCARDS | MY CORPS OF DISCOVERY
IMAGE INDEX | LINKS | ABOUT THIS SITE


COLUMBIA RIVER IMAGES - HOME
NORTHWEST JOURNEY - HOME
NORTHWEST BIRDING
RIDGEFIELD NWR - BIRDS
COMPLETE BIRD LIST - PHOTOS
THE BARLOW ROAD
THE COLUMBIA RIVER HIGHWAY
WILDFLOWERS and WEED BLOSSOMS



*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Armstrong, C.H., (compiler), 1965, "History of the Oregon State Parks: 1917-1963, published by Oregon State Parks;    Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website, 2004;    Mountain Men and the Fur Trade website, 2006;    Oregon State Archives website, 2004;    Oregon State Archives website, 2005, "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon";    Oregon State Parks website, 2014;    "Recreation.gov" website, 2014;    U.S. Forest Service, Deschutes/Ochoco National Forests website, 2004;    Washington State Historical Society website, 2004, "Lasting Legacy";    Washington State University website, 2005, "Early Washington Maps: A Digital Collection";   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
ColumbiaRiverImages.com/Regions/Places/deschutes_river.html
© 2017, Lyn Topinka, "ColumbiaRiverImages.com", All rights reserved.
Images are NOT to be downloaded from this website.
May 2014