Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Columbia Slough, Oregon"
Includes ... Columbia Slough ... Columbia Slough Wetlands ... Vanport Wetlands Wildlife Habitat ... "Columbia Bayou" ... "Pearoy's Slough" ... Fairview Lake ... Bybee Lake ... Smith Lake ... Smith and Bybee Lakes Wildlife Area ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2006, Columbia Slough near mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough near mouth, Oregon. View from Marine Drive near Kelley Point Park. Image taken February 4, 2006.


Columbia Slough ...
The Columbia Slough is a 60-square-mile watershed located on the floodplain for the Willamette River and the Columbia River, and includes approximately 32,700 acres, 6 lakes, 3 ponds, and 50 miles of waterways. The Columbia Slough begins at Fairview Lake and meanders west for 19 miles to Kelley Point where it empties into the Willamette.

On the west end of the Columbia Slough are located Smith and Bybee Lakes and the Smith and Bybee Lakes Wildlife Area, which, according to the Portland Bureau of Environmental Sciences website (2006) is the largest urban wetland in the United States.


Lewis and Clark and the Columbia Slough ...
Lewis and Clark described the east end of the Columbia Slough area on November 3, 1805 -- the "quick Sand River" is today's Sandy River:

"... The Countrey below quick Sand river on the Lard Side is low Piney Countrey ..." [Clark, November 2, 1805, first draft]

"... below quick Sand River the Countrey is low rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river, the Islands open & Some ponds river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Stalks, white guls, comerants & plevers &c. also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river ..." [Clark, November 3, 1805]

Today the "low rich and thickly timbered" land of Lewis and Clark is "urbanized". Beginning in the 1920s landowners began diking and dredging, eventually creating 30 miles of levees and diverting sections of the Slough into underground pipes. The area is prime for businesses and residential housing. The Portland International Airport and the Port of Portland marine terminals are located within the Slough boundaries, as well as miles of Interstate 84, Interstate 205 and Interstate 5.


Captain Clark and the Mouth of the Columbia Slough ...
Captain Clark passes the mouth of the Columbia Slough on April 2, 1806 and again on April 3, 1806, as he journeys up the Willamette River, reaching as far south to just past the St. Johns Bridge. He does not mention it specifically. It can be inferred however as being at "the upper point of a Small Island ...". On April 2, 1806, Clark wrote:

"... The course and distance assending the Molt no mar R from it's enterance into the Columbia at the lower point of the 3rd Image Canoe island.

S. 30 W. 2 Miles to the upper point of a Small Island in the Middle of Moltnomar river. thence

S. 10 W. 3 miles to a Sluce 80 yards wide which devides Wappato Island from the Main Stard. Side Shore passing a Willow point on the Lard. Side. ..."

This area has changed during the past 200 years. Lewis and Clark's "Image Canoe Island" is today's Hayden Island. Clark's "3rd Image Canoe Island" however may be in reference to Hayden Island or it may be in reference to a point on one of the three islands Lewis and Clark found in the Willamette's mouth.

Two of these islands may be the islands which eventually became Belle Vue Point on Sauvie Island, and Pearcy Island which eventually became Kelley Point. The Columbia Slough borders the southern edge of Pearcy Island.

The "Sluce 80 yards wide" is the Multnomah Channel, and "Wappato Island" is Sauvie Island. The Multnomah Channel is approximately 3 miles upstream of the mouth of the Willamette, thereby adding to the possibility that the Columbia Slough is at the "upper point of a Small Island in the Middle of Moltnomar river ...".


Early Columbia Slough ...
An 1852 cadastral survey (tax survey) for T1N R1E has Columbia Slough labeled "Columbia Bayou", and the 1852 cadastral survey for T1N R2E has it labeled "Columbia Slough".

The 1888 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey's Chart "Columbia River, Sheet No.6, Fales Landing to Portland" has an island on the Oregon side of the downstream end of Hayden Island listed as "Pearoy's Island". "Pearoy's Island" is separated from the Oregon mainland by "Pearoy's Slough", with the "Columbia Slough" entering "Pearoy's Slough". Today these are Kelley Point and the Columbia Slough.


Image, 1852, Detail, Cadastral Survey, Hayden Island and Columbia Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Detail, 1852 Cadastral Survey map for T1N R1E, showing Hayden Island ("Vancouver Island") and the Columbia Slough ("Columbia Bayou"). Original map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.


Columbia Slough, etc.

  • Columbia Slough Mile 0.15 ... Columbia Slough at Kelley Point
  • Mile 0.5 ... Columbia Slough from Marine Drive
  • Mile 4.5 ... Columbia Slough from North Portland Road
  • Mile 6.5 ... Columbia Slough from Denver Avenue, Kenton District
  • Mile 6.7 ... Columbia Slough from Interstate 5
  • Mile 7.5 ... Columbia Slough from North Vancouver Avenue
  • Mile 7.7 ... Columbia Slough from NE Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.
  • Mile 8.7 ... Columbia Slough from NE 21st Avenue
  • Mile 9.25 ... Columbia Slough from NE 33rd Drive
  • Mile 10.25 ... Columbia SLough from NE 47th Avenue
  • Mile 10.6 ... Columbia Slough from NE Airtrans Way
  • Mile 11 ... Columbia Slough at W.D. Jackson Armory
  • Mile 11.75 ... Columbia Slough at NE Alderwood Road
  • Mile 12 ... Columbia Slough at NE 82nd Avenue
  • Mile 12.65 ... Columbia Slough at NE 92nd Drive
  • Mile 13.25 ... Columbia Slough at Interstate 205
  • Mile 13.3 ... Columbia Slough at NE Holman Street/NE 105th Avenue
  • Mile 14.3 ... Columbia Slough at NE 122nd Avenue
  • Mile 15 ... Columbia Slough at NE 138th Avenue
  • Mile 19 ... Fairview Lake
  • Mud Slough at Vanport Wetlands
  • Whitaker Slough at Whitaker Ponds


Mile 0.15 ... Columbia Slough at Kelley Point
The Columbia Slough begins at Fairview Lake and meanders west for 19 miles to Kelley Point where it empties into the Willamette River.
[More]

Image, 2006, Mouth of the Columbia Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough merging with the Willamette River, Oregon. View from Kelley Point Park. Image taken February 4, 2006.


Mile 0.5 ... Columbia Slough from Marine Drive

Image, 2006, Columbia Slough near mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough from Marine Drive, looking downstream, Oregon. View from near Kelley Point Park. Image taken February 4, 2006.


Mile 4.5 ... Columbia Slough from North Portland Road

Image, 2016, Columbia Slough, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough from North Portland Road, looking upstream, Portland, Oregon. Image taken October 12, 2016.
Image, 2016, Columbia Slough, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough from North Portland Road, looking downstream, Portland, Oregon. Image taken October 12, 2016.


Mile 6.5 ... Columbia Slough from Denver Avenue, Kenton District
Two miles of Columbia Slough meander through the Historic Kenton District.
[More]

Image, 2016, Columbia Slough, Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough as seen from Denver Avenue, Kenton District, Portland, Oregon. View looking west. Image taken July 6, 2016.


Mile 11 ... Columbia Slough at the W.D. Jackson Armory

Image, 2006, Columbia Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia Slough at the W.D. Jackson Armory, near Portland International Airport, Oregon. Image taken April 16, 2006.


Mile 19 ... Fairview Lake
Fairview Lake is considered the beginning of the Columbia Slough watershed. The Columbia Slough begins at Fairview Lake and meanders west for 19 miles to Kelley Point where it empties into the Willamette River.
[More]

Image, 2012, Fairview and Blue Lakes, Government Islands, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fairview Lake (foreground) and Blue Lake (behind), with McGuire, Government, and Ackerman Islands on the Columbia. View from airliner heading towards PDX. Mid afternoon, clouds, gray, and drizzle. Image taken April 24, 2012.


Mud Slough at Vanport Wetlands ...
The Vanport Wetlands is a 90.5-acre wildlife habitat site located in the Columbia Slough corridor, between Interstate 5, the Multnomah Expo Center, and Portland International Raceway. Mud Slough, which enters into the Columbia Slough, follows the Wetlands north and west sides.
[More]


Whitaker Slough at Whitaker Ponds ...
Whitaker Ponds drains into Whitaker Slough, which then drains into Columbia Slough in about 1/2 mile.
[More]

Image, 2012, Whitaker Slough, Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Whitaker Slough at Whitaker Ponds, Portland, Oregon. Image taken March 9, 2012.
Image, 2015, Whitaker Slough, Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Whitaker Slough at Whitaker Ponds, Portland, Oregon. Image taken August 19, 2015.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Penny Postcards today show us a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Columbia River Slough, ca.1905, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Columbia River Slough, Oregon, ca.1905. Penny Postcard, ca.1905, "A Bit of the Columbia River, Oregon.". Later postcards (ca.1910) use same image and refer to it as the Columbia River Slough. Published by Frank S. Thayer, Denver, Colorado. Card #700. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Columbia River Slough, ca.1907, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Evening on Columbia River Slough, ca.1907. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1907, "Evening on Coumbia River Slough". Published by The Portland Post Card Co., Portland, Oregon. Made in Germany. Card is postmarked July 19, 1907. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 3, 1805, first draft ...
The fog So thick this morning we did not think it prudent to Set out [from their camp at Rooster Rock] untill <it Cleared away at> 10 oClock we Set out and proceeded on verry well, accompanied by our Indian friends- ...     The water rose <2> Inches last night the effects of tide. The Countrey has a handsom appearance in advance no mountains extensive bottoms- the water Shallow for a great distance from Shore-. The fog continued thick untill 12 oClock, we Coasted, and halted at the mouth of a large river on the Lard Side [Sandy River], This river throws out emence quanty of <quick> Sand and is verry Shallow, th narrowest part 200 yards wide bold Current, much resembling the river Plat, Several Islands about 1 mile up and has a Sandbar of 3 miles in extend imedately in its mouth, discharging it waters by 2 mouths, and Crowding its Corse Sands So as to throw the Columbia waters on its Nothern banks, & confdg it to ms. in width Passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side above [location of Washougal, Washington, Cottonwood Beach, and William Clark Park], a large Creek [Washougal River] opposit qk Sand River [Sandy River] on the Stard. Side, extensive bottoms and low hilley Countrey on each Side (good wintering Place) a high peaked mountain Suppose to be Mt. Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] is on the Lard Side S. 85 E. 40 miles distant from the mouth of quick Sand river [Sandy River]. ...

West 3 miles
to the upper mouth of quick Sand <mountain> river [Sandy River], Country low on each Side rising to a hilley Countrey passed a large Creek opposit Std. Side [Washougal River] & 2 Sand bars

S. 70 W. 7 miles
to the upper point of a large Island [Government Island] Covered with [blank]     passed the Lower mouth of Sandy river [Sandy River] at 3 miles opposit the head of a large Island Std. Side faced with rocks and the <edge> Side is pine & Cotton a large Creek falls in [Washougal River] oppost to the head of this Island Isld of Fowls [Lady Island] as I Saw Som 1000 pass over to the head of this Island on the Stard Sd. passed Some ruged rocks in the middle of the river opposit the Island- river wide The Countrey below quick Sand river [Sandy River] on the Lard Side is low Piney Countrey [eastern end of the Columbia Slough, located on the floodplain of the Willamette River and the Columbia]. Passed the lower point of the Island [Lady Island] at 3 miles long & 1 wide- emence quantity of Geese, Brants, Ducks & Sea otter, Some of the large & Small kind of Swan, & Sand hill Cranes-also luns & White gulls

S. 87 W. 3 miles
on the North Side of the Island [Government Island] and Encamped ...     we Camped on the Island, and Sent out hunters on it and Capt. Lewis walked out, after Dark Capt. Lewis with 3 men went into a large Pond on this Island & killed a Swan & Several ducks. ...



Clark, November 3, 1805 ...
The Fog So thick [typical of the Pacific Northwest in the fall and spring] this morning that we could not See a man 50 Steps off, this fog detained us untill 10 oClock at which time we Set out [from their camp at Rooster Rock], ...    I walked on the Sand beech Lard. Side, opposit the canoes as they passed allong. The under groth rushes, vines &c. in the bottoms too thick to pass through, at 3 miles I arrived at the enterance of a river [Sandy River] which appeared to Scatter over a Sand bar, the bottom of which I could See quite across and did not appear to be 4 Inches deep in any part; I attempted to wade this Stream and to my astonishment found the bottom a quick Sand, and impassable- I called to the Canoes to put to Shore, I got into the Canoe and landed below the mouth, & Capt Lewis and my Self walked up this river about 1 miles to examine this river which we found to be a verry Considerable Stream Dischargeing its waters through 2 Chanels which forms an Island [Sandy River Delta, which has had various names throughout history] of about 3 miles in length on the river and 1 miles wide, composed of Corse Sand which is thrown out of this quick Sand river Compressing the waters of the Columbia and throwing the whole Current of its waters against its Northern banks, within a Chanel of a mile wide, Several Small Islands 1 mile up this river, This Stream has much the appearance of the River Platt: roleing its quick Sands into the bottoms with great velocity after which it is divided into 2 Chanels by a large Sand bar before mentioned, the narrowest part of this River is 120 yards-on the Opposit Side of the Columbia a <large Creek> falls in [Washougal River]     above this Creek on the Same Side is a Small prarie [location of Washougal, Washington, Cottonwood Beach, now the home of Captain William Clark Park, and the Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge]. extensive low country on each Side thickly timbered [low area upstream of Cottonwood Beach and Captain William Clark Park is the Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge].

The Quick Sand river [Sandy River] appears to pass through the low countrey at the foot of those high range of mountains in a Southerly direction,- The large Creeks which fall into the Columbia on the Stard. Side [Washougal River] rise in the Same range of mountains to the N. N. E. and pass through Some ridgey land- A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon] is S. 85 E about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river [Sandy River]     This mtn. is Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed through and is of a Conical form but rugid- after takeing dinner at the mouth of this river [Sandy River]  we proceeded on passed the head of a Island [Lady Island] near the lard Side [???] back of which on the Same Side and near the head a large Creek falls in [Washougal River, today the town of Camas, Washington, lies between Lady Island and the Washougal River], and nearly opposit & 3 miles below the upper mouth of quick Sand river is the lower mouth, [for?] This Island [Lady Island] is 3 1/2 miles long, has rocks at the upper point, Some timber on the borders of this Island in the middle open and ponney. Some rugid rocks in the middle of the Stream opposit this Island.   <proceeded in> to Center of a large Island in the middle of the river which we call Dimond Isld. [Government Island] from its appearance, here we met 15 Indn men in 2 canoes from below, they informed us they Saw 3 vestles below &c. &c. we landed on the North Side of this Dimond Island and Encamped [on the north side of Government Island, perhaps opposite Fishers Landing],     Capt. L walked out with his gun on the Island, Sent out hunters & fowlers- below quick Sand River [Sandy River] the Countrey is low rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river  [on the Oregon side this area is the eastern end of the Columbia Slough, located on the floodplain of the Willamette River with the Columbia River],   the Islands open & Some ponds river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Stalks, white guls, comerants & plevers &c. also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river [Harbor Seals] -     a Canoe arrived from the village below the last rapid ...     Capt Lewis borrowed a Small Canoe of those Indians & 4 men took her across to a Small lake in the Isld. [Government Island] ...    ...  :  note the mountain we Saw from near the forks proves to be Mount Hood [Mount Hood, Oregon]






Clark, April 2, 1806 ...
This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present encampment [Cottonwood Beach, Washougal, Washington] or Some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained as much dried meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the Chopunnish. ...     about this time Several Canoes of the nativs arived at our Camp [Cottonwood Beach] among others two from below with Eight men of the Shah-ha-la Nation those men informed us that they reside on the opposit Side of the Columbia near Some pine trees which they pointed to in the bottom South of the Dimond Island [Government Island], they Singled out two young men whome they informed us lited at the Falls of a large river [Willamette Falls] which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South Side Some Miles below us. we readily provailed on them to give us a Sketch of this river [Willamette River] which they drew on a Mat with a coal, it appeared that this river which they Call Mult-no'-mah discharged itself behind the Island we call the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], and as we had left this Island to the South both in decending & assending the river we had never Seen it. they informed us that it was a large river and runs a Considerable distance to the South between the Mountains. I deturmined to take a Small party and return to this river and examine its Size and Collect as much information of the nativs on it or near its enterance into the Columbia of its extent, the Country which it waters and the nativs who inhabit its banks &c. I took with me Six Men. Thompson J. Potts, Peter Crusat, P. Wiser, T. P. Howard, Jos. Whitehouse & my man York in a large Canoe, with an Indian whome I hired for a Sun glass to accompany me as a pilot. at half past 11 A. M. I Set out ...     at 8 miles passed a village on the South side [Chinook Landing and Blue Lake area] at this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond island [Government Island], and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without landing at this village. at 3 P. M. I landed at a large double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation. at this place we had Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall [November 4, 1805, in the vicinity of the Portland International Airport] and whome as I have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia [Celilo Falls].     on the bank at different places I observed Small Canoes which the women make use of to gather Wappato & roots in the Slashes. those Canoes are from 10 to 14 feet long and from 18 to 23 inches wide in the widest part tapering from the center to both ends in this form and about 9 inches deep and So light that a woman may with one hand haul them with ease, and they are Sufficient to Carry a woman on Some loading. I think 100 of those canoes were piled up and Scattered in different directions about in the Woods in the vecinity of this house, the pilot informed me that those Canoes were the property of the inhabitents of the Grand rapids who used them ocasionally to gather roots. ...

I left them [village near today's Portland International Airport] and proceeded on on the South Side [North Portland Harbor] of Image Canoe Island [Hayden Island] which I found to be two Islands hid from the opposit Side by one near the Center of the river. the lower point of the upper and the upper point of the lower cannot be Seen from the North Side of the Columbia on which we had passed both decending and ascending and had not observed the apperture between those islands. at the distance of 13 Miles below the last village [location of Portland International Airport] and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the image Canoe island [Hayden Island], I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, Called Mult no mah River [Willamette River] so called by the nativs from a Nation who reside on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah [Willamette River] discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may be justly Said to be the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth [Belle Vue Point and Kelley Point, on opposite sides of the mouth of the Willamette, use to be islands] which hides the river from view from the Columbia.     from the enterance of this river [Willamette River] , I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East [Mount Hood, Oregon], Mt St. Helians [Mount St. Helens, Washington] a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians [Mount Adams, Washington, is east of Mount St. Helens]. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer [Mount Rainier, Washington] Nearly North. Soon after I arived at this river an old man passed down of the Clark a'mos Nation who are noumerous and reside on a branch of this river which receives it's waters from Mt. Jefferson [Mount Jefferson, Oregon] which is emensely high and discharges itself into this river one day and a half up, this distance I State at 40 Miles. This nation inhabits 11 Villages their Dress and language is very Similar to the Quath-lah-poh-tle and other tribes on Wappato Island [Sauvie Island].



The Current of the Multnomar [Willamette River] is as jentle as that of the Columbia glides Smoothly with an eavin surface, and appears to be Sufficiently deep for the largest Ship. I attempted fathom it with a Cord of 5 fathom which was the only Cord I had, could not find bottom ? of the distance across. I proceeded up this river 10 miles from it's enterance into the Columbia to a large house on the N E. Side and Encamped near the house [downstream of Cathedral Park and the St. Johns Bridge, Portland, Oregon, near Portland's Terminal 4.], the flees being So noumerous in the house that we could not Sleep in it.



this is the house of the Cush-hooks Nation who reside at the falls of this river which the pilot informs me they make use of when they Come down to the Vally to gather Wappato. he also informs me that a number of other Smaller houses are Situated on two Bayous which make out on the S. E. Side a little below the house. this house appears to have been laterly abandoned by its inhabitants ...     The course and distance assending the Molt no mar R [Willamette River] from it's enterance into the Columbia at the lower point of the 3rd Image Canoe island.

[This area has changed during the past 200 years. Lewis and Clark called today's Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island". Their "3rd Image Canoe Island" however maybe in reference to the "three Small Islands are situated in it's mouth" (see journal entry above), two of the islands possibly were islands which are today's Belle Vue Point on Sauvie Island, and Pearcy Island which eventually became Kelley Point. Lewis and Clark's route map (Map#79 and Map#80, Moulton, Vol.1) shows a long "Image Canoe Island" with two small islands on the north side of "Image Canoe Island", and three small islands at the mouth of the "Multnomah R.". ]

S. 30 W. 2 Miles to the upper point of a Small Island [???] in the Middle of Moltnomar river [Willamette River]. thence

S. 10 W. 3 miles to a Sluce 80 yards wide [Multnomah Channel] which devides Wappato Island [Sauvie Island] from the Main Stard. Side Shore passing a Willow point on the Lard. Side [???].

S. 60 E. 3 miles to a large Indian house on the Lard Side below Some high pine land.

[Lewis and Clark's map plotted against an 1888 map of the area shows this location to be closer to 2 miles from the Multnomah Channel, just upstream from Portland's Terminal 4, and across from the community of Linnton.]

high bold Shore on the Starboard Side [Tualatin Mountains]. thence

S. 30 E 2 miles to a bend under the high lands on the Stard Side [St. Johns Bridge area located at the base of the Tualatin Mountains]

miles 10 passing a Larborad point [???].

thence the river bends to the East of S East as far as I could See [the stretch through Portland, Oregon]. at this place I think the wedth of the river may be Stated at 500 yards and Sufficiently deep for a Man of War or Ship of any burthern.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: Center for Columbia River History website, 2006; NOAA Office of Coast Survey website, 2006; Port of Portland website, 2006; Portland Bureau of Environmental Sciences website, 2006; U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2007.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2008