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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Columbia River Fish Hatcheries"
Includes ... Fish Hatchery ... Columbia River ...
Image, 2014, Hamilton Island, Washington, click to enlarge
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Salmon Fishing, Hamilton Island, Washington. Image taken April 7, 2014.


Columbia River Fish Hatcheries ...
(to come)


Columbia River Fish Hatcheries

  • Columbia River Mile (RM) 27 ... Gnat Creek Hatchery, Oregon ...
  • RM 113 ... Vancouver Trout Hatchery, Washington ...
  • RM 121 ... Skamania Hatchery and Washougal Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington ...
  • RM 146 ... Bonneville Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...
  • Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility ...
  • RM 146.5 ... Cascade Fish Hatchery, Eagle Creek, Oregon ...
  • RM 150.5 ... Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Herman Creek, Oregon ...
  • RM 162 ... Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Washington ...
  • RM 167.5 ... Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Washington ...
  • RM 278.5 ... Umatilla Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...
  • RM 279 ... Irrigon Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...


RM 27 ... Gnat Creek Hatchery, Oregon ...
The approximately 11-mile-long Gnat Creek heads at the base of Nicolai Mountain and generally flows northwest and north to the Clatskanie/Beaver Slough floodplain where it merges into Blind Slough at approximate Columbia River Mile (RM) 27. The Gnat Creek Hatchery was constructed in 1960 as part of the Columbia River Fisheries Development Program (Mitchell Act), a program to enhance declining fish runs in the Columbia River Basin. The facility is used for egg incubation and rearing of spring chinook and winter steelhead. Most of the production is released off-station. Spring chinook and winter steelhead fill the fish raceways at Gnat Creek Hatchery. The hatchery is also the home of a cutting-edge oxygen supplementation system that will increase productivity of hatchery fish and therefore enhance the local recreational fishing opportunities.
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RM 113 ... Vancouver Trout Hatchery, Washington ...
The Vancouver Trout Hatchery is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 113, and at one time was the home of the Hudson's Bay Company sawmill. Later, the abundance of cold natural spring water made it an ideal location for the successful rearing of fish. The Hatchery was constructed in 1938 and 1939 as part of the Federal Government Depression-era Works Programs Administration. In the 1990s the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) entered onto a twenty-year agreement with Clark Public Utilities to keep the hatchery open and producing fish. Today the Hatchery is also home to the Columbia Springs Environmental Education Center, the Biddle Natural Reserve, East and West Biddle Lakes, and numerous hiking trails.
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Image, 2004, Vancouver Trout Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Trout Hatchery, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken December 18, 2004.
Image, 2011, Vancouver Trout Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Vancouver Trout Hatchery, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 31, 2011.


RM 121 ... Skamania Hatchery and Washougal Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington ...
The Skamania Hatchery (steelhead, built 1956) and the Washougal Hatchery (salmon, built 1958) are both Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries located within the Washougal River drainage. The Skamania Hatchery is located one mile upstream on the West Fork (North Fork) Washougal River which enters the mainstem Washougal River at RM 14.5. The Washougal Hatchery located on the mainstem Washougal River at RM 20. The Washougal River enters the Columbia River at RM 121.
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Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Skamania Hatchery, West Fork Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife steelhead hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Skamania Hatchery, West Fork Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife steelhead hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Skamania Hatchery, West Fork Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife steelhead hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Fingerlings, Skamania Hatchery, West Fork Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife steelhead hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Washougal Fish Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife salmon hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Washougal Fish Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife salmon hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Washougal Fish Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife salmon hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal River, click to enlarge
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Transport truck, Washougal Fish Hatchery, Washougal River, Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife salmon hatchery. Image taken August 3, 2016.


RM 146 ... Bonneville Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...
In the early 1930s the Bonneville Dam was built across the Columbia River at Columbia River Mile (RM) 146. The Bonneville Fish Hatchery, originally built in 1909 and known as the "Central Hatchery", was renovated in conjunction with the dam. Today the Bonneville Fish Hatchery is managed by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and raises salmon and steelhead for sport, commercial and tribal fisheries in the lower Columbia River and along the northern Oregon Coast.
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Image, 2005, Bonneville Fish Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Bonneville Fish Hatchery, Bonneville Dam, Oregon. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2005, Bonneville Fish Hatchery, click to enlarge
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"Historic Area", Egg Incubation Building, Bonneville Fish Hatchery, Bonneville Dam, Oregon. Image taken June 29, 2005.
Image, 2004, Bonneville Dam Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Salmon Rearing Ponds, Bonneville Fish Hatchery, Bonneville Dam, Oregon. Image taken October 27, 2004.


Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility ...
The Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility is located near the eastern end of Hamilton Island. The system is a bypass to direct juvenile fish around the Bonneville Dam's turbines. The facilities also enable researchers to monitor the number and condition of the young fish.

Outfall
Juvenile salmon (smolts) enter the bypass system on the upstream face of the pwerhouse. The smolts are carried down stream by a flume to the outfall exit where they reenter the river. The location of the outfall gives smolts an edge over predators. Here, strong currents prevent predators such as Northern Pikeminnow and Walleye from holding position and preying upon smolts returning to the river. Hydro cannons located on each outfall spray jets of water up to 150 feet, deterring gulls, tern and other predatory birds from feeding on the smolts as they exit the pipe and head downstream to the ocean."


Source:    Information sign, Juvenile Fish Bypass Monitoring Facility, 2014.

Image, 2011, Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility, Hamilton Island, click to enlarge
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Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility, Hamilton Island. A wildlife pond is on the left. Table Mountain rises in the background. Image taken May 20, 2011.
Image, 2006, Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility, Hamilton Island, click to enlarge
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Outfall, Bonneville Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility, Hamilton Island. Image taken April 7, 2014.


RM 146.5 ... Cascade Fish Hatchery, Eagle Creek, Oregon ...
The Cascade Fish Hatchery located on 3.8 acres on the right bank of Eagle Creek, at Columbia River Mile (RM) 146.5. It was built in 1959 as part of the Mitchell Act. The hatchery uses the waters of Eagle Creek for egg incubation and the rearing of Coho Salmon. The location of the Cascade Fish Hatchery was once the location of a privately-owned campground with cabins, garages, and a two-story lodge located along what is now known as the Historic Columbia River Highway.
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Image, 2006, Cascade Fish Hatchery from Eagle Creek Bridge, click to enlarge
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Cascade Fish Hatchery from Eagle Creek Bridge, Oregon. Image taken September 16, 2006.
Image, 2006, Cascade Fish Hatchery and the Eagle Creek Bridge, click to enlarge
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Cascade Fish Hatchery and the Eagle Creek Bridge, Oregon. Image taken September 16, 2006.


RM 150.5 ... Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Herman Creek, Oregon ...

The Oxbow Fish Hatchery is located on Herman Creek at approximate Columbia River Mile (RM) 150.5. It was originally constructed in 1913 to provide additional rearing facilities for Bonneville Hatchery and relocated to its present site in 1937 following the construction of Bonneville Dam. Oxbow operated as a state-funded hatchery until 1952 when it was remodeled and expanded as part of the Columbia River Fisheries Development Program (Mitchell Act), a program to enhance declining fish runs in the Columbia River Basin. The hatchery is presently used for interim egg incubation and early rearing of Coho, Spring Chinook and Sockeye. No adult fish are collected or spawned at Oxbow and there are no fish released at this facility. Upper and Lower Herman Creek Ponds are used as interim rearing sites for coho transferred in from other facilities."
[More]

Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Sign, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.


RM 162 ... Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Washington ...
The Little White Salmon River is located at Columbia River Mile (RM) 162. Prior to the construction of Bonneville Dam in 1938, a limited amount of natural production by anadromous fish occurred in the Little White Salmon River below the falls, a section of the river which has been inundated by the construction of Bonneville Dam. Historically, fall chinook, spring chinook, coho and steelhead are believed to have utilized the area. Currently only hatchery reared fish return to the river. Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was built in 1896 and is one of the oldest on the Columbia River system. It is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located approximately two miles above the mouth of the Little White Salmon River. The hatchery was modernized as part of the Mitchell Act Program in 1949.
[More]

Image, 2013, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Washington. Image taken March 24, 2013.
Image, 2004, Falls and ladder at Little White Salmon Fish Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Falls and ladder at Little White Salmon Fish Hatchery. Image taken November 4, 2004.
Image, 2015, Little White Salmon River, Washington, click to enlarge
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Salmon, Little White Salmon River, Washington. Image taken May 9, 2015.


RM 167.5 ... Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Washington ...
Spring Creek Fish Hatchery is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River between Hood and Underwood, Washington, at Columbia River Mile (RM) 167.5. The Little White Salmon Fish Hatchery is located downstream. Adult Tule Fall Chinook salmon return in September and visitors to the hatchery can watch the fish being spawned in mid- to late September.
[More]

Image, 2012, Spring Creek Fish Hatchery, click to enlarge
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Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Washington. Image taken June 15, 2012.
Image, 2012, Spring Creek Fish Hatchery, Washington, click to enlarge
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Incubation building, Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Washington. Image taken June 15, 2012.
Image, 2012, Spring Creek Fish Hatchery, Washington, click to enlarge
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Adult holding pens, Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Washington. Image taken June 15, 2012.


RM 278.5 ... Umatilla Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...
The Umatilla Fish Hatchery began operation in 1991 and is used for egg incubation and the rearing of spring chinook, fall chinook, and summer steelhead. It rears a portion of its fish in unique ponds called "Michigan Ponds". The hatchery is located along the Paterson Ferry Road.
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Image, 2005, Umatilla Fish Hatchery, downstream of Irrigon, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Umatilla Fish Hatchery, downstream of Irrigon, Oregon. Image taken September 24, 2005.


RM 279 ... Irrigon Fish Hatchery, Oregon ...
The Irrigon Fish Hatchery is located along the Columbia River above the John Day Dam and three miles downstream of Irrigon, Oregon, at approximately Columbia River Mile (RM) 279. The Irrigon facility began operation in 1984 as part of the Lower Snake River Compensation Program (LSRCP), a program to mitigate for spring Chinook and summer steelhead losses caused by the four federal dams constructed on the lower Snake River. The facility serves as an egg incubation and rearing facility for summer steelhead destined for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river system, and as egg incubation for 575,000 Umatilla Coho eggs for transfer to the Cascade Hatchery at Eagle Creek. The facility is also used as a rearing site for legal and trophy sized rainbow trout destined for northeastern Oregon waters.
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"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Seufert Brothers Cannery, The Dalles, Oregon, ca.1909
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Penny Postcard: Seufert Brothers Cannery, The Dalles, Oregon, ca.1909 Penny Postcard, Dated 1909, "Seufert Brothers Col, Salmon Cannery, The Dalles, Oregon, The Dalles in the Distance.". Mount Hood, Oregon, is on the left. Published by The Portland Post Card Company, Portland, Oregon. Card #6027. Hand-written message on card is dated January 3, 1909. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Seining for Salmon near The Dalles, ca.1910
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Penny Postcard: Seining for Salmon near The Dalles, Oregon, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Seining Salmon, near The Dalles, Oregon.". Published by Benj. A. Gifford, The Dalles, Oregon. Made in Germany. Card #265. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Seining for Salmon near The Dalles, ca.1910
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Penny Postcard: Seining for Salmon near The Dalles, Oregon, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Seining Crew Hauling Seine Columbia River.". Published by Pacific Novelty Co., San Francisco. Made in Great Britain. Card #928. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Fish Wheel on the Columbia River, ca.1915
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Fish Wheel on the Columbia River, ca.1915
Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1915, "Fish Wheel, Columbia River, Oregon, On Line O.W.R. & N. Co." Image copyright Weister. Card #1459. Card is postmarked January 29, 1915. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
From: "Fishwheels on the Columbia" (Donaldson and Cramer, 1971):   "Tanner Creek Scow Wheel looking toward Washington shore and Table Mountain."


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, March 13, 1806 ...
The Red Charr are reather broader in proportion to their length than the Common Salmon, the Skales are also embricated but reather large.    the nostrum exceeds the lower jaw more and the teeth are neither So numerous or large as those of the Salmon. Some of them are almost entirely red on the belly and Sides; others are much more white than the Salmon, and none of them are varigated with the dark Spots which mark the body of the other.   their flesh roe and every other particular with respect to their is that of the Salmon.   this fish we did not See untill we had decended below the Great falls of the Columbia [at The Dalles]; but whether they are exclusively confined to this portion of the river or not at all Seasons, I am unable to determine.

The Salmon Trout [Steelhead trout, a new species] are Seldom more than two feet in length, they are narrow in purportion to their length, at least much more So than the Salmon & red charr.    their jaws are nearly of the Same length, and are furnished with a Single Series of Subulate Streight teeth, not so long or so large as those of the Salmon, the mouth is wide, and the tongue is also furnished with Some teeth.    the fins are placed much like those of the Salmon.    at the Great Falls [at The Dalles] are met with this fish of a Silvery white colour on the belly and Sides, and a blueish light brown on the back and head.    in this neighbourhood [The Dalles or Fort Clatsop ???] we have met with another Species [Steelhead Trout] which does not differ from the other in any particular except in point of Colour.    this last is of a dark colour on the back, and its Sides and belley are yellow with transverse Stripes of dark brown.    Sometimes a little red is intermixed with these Colours on the belly and Sides towards the head.    the flesh & roe is like those described of the Salmon.    the white Species which we found below the falls were in excellent order when he Salmon were entirely out of Season and not fit for use. The Species which we found here early in november on our arival in this quarter had declined considerably, reather more so than the Red charr with which we found them asociated in the little riverlets and creeks.    I think it may be Safely asserted that the Red Charr and both Species of the Salmon trout remain in Season longer in the fall of the year than the common Salmon; [on the Salmon runs] but I have my doubt whether of the Species of the Salmon trout ever pass the Great falls of the Columbia. The Indians tell us that the Salmon begin to run early in the next month; it will be unfortunate for us if they do not, for they must form our principal dependance for food in assending the Columbia above the Falls and it's S. E. branch Lewis's river to the Mountains.





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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May 2015