Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
Home Regions Campsites Penny Postcards My Corps of Discovery Image Index Links About This Site Main Menu
Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Cascade Rapids"
Includes ... Cascade Rapids ... Lower Falls of the Columbia ... "The Great Shoot or Rapid" ... Campsite of October 30-31, 1805 and April 12, 1806 ... Campsite of November 1, 1805 ... The Portage ... Cascades Massacre ... Campsite of April 10-11, 1806 ... The Forts of the Cascade Rapids ... Fort Gilliam ... Fort Cascades ... Fort Rains ... Fort Lugenbeel ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2013, Cascade Locks, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Looking downsteam, Cascade Locks and Bridge of the Gods, Cascade Locks Marine Park, Cascade Locks, Oregon. View towards the location of the "Lower Falls of the Columbia". The Bridge of the Gods is in the background. Image taken February 15, 2013.


Cascade Rapids ...
The Cascade Rapids were also known as the "Lower Falls of the Columbia", and encompassed and area from Cascade Locks, Oregon down to Hamilton Island, Washington. Today this area also includes the Bonneville Dam, Bridge of the Gods, Bradford, Robins, and Cascade Islands, and the community of North Bonneville, Washington. On the Oregon side was Tanner Creek, Oregon, where Lewis and Clark camped on the night of April 9, 1806. The Cascade Rapids were four and one-half miles long, with early history dividing the reach was into two sections, the "Upper Cascades" and the "Lower Cascades". Later years included a "Middle Cascades". The total fall of the river from the head of Upper Cascades to the bottom of Lower Cascades was 45 feet at high water and 36 feet at low water.

"Upper Cascades" ...
The "Upper Cascades" made a bend around a rocky point on the Oregon shore, then went into a 2,000-foot-long pitch in the river and a 21-foot drop. Lewis and Clark's map has the inscription:
"The Great Shoot or Rapid. 150 Yards wide and 400 Yards long crowded with Stones and Islands."

A portage of this "Great Shoot" was located on the Washington side of the Columbia and crossed today's Sheridan Point, beginning at Ashes Lake and ending at Fort Rains. The Bonneville Dam is approximately one mile further downstream. The "Upper Cascades" was the location of the 1848 supply depot known as Fort Gilliam, and the 1856 blockhouse Fort Lugenbeel.


Image, 2005, Columbia River looking downstream Bridge of the Gods, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River looking downstream from Bridge of the Gods, with the toe of the Bonneville Landslide visible on the right. Image taken May 13, 2005.


"Middle Cascades" ...

Image, 2005, Columbia River and Oregon as seen from the Fort Rains area, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River and Oregon, as seen from the Fort Rains and North Bank Railroad information signs Washington. Image taken February 26, 2005.


"Lower Cascades" ...
The "Lower Cascades" was a long three-and-a-half-mile pitch in the Columbia River through the area of today's Bonneville Dam. The lower end was in the vicinity of Hamilton Island on the Washington side across from Munra Point on the Oregon side. In his journal, Captain Clark referred to this area as "a Second Shute".

"... The Indians who arrived last evining took their Canoes on ther Sholders and Carried them below the Great Shute, we Set about takeing our Small Canoe and all the baggage by land 940 yards of bad Slippery and rockey way The Indians we discoverd took ther loading the whole length of the portage 2 1/2 miles, to avoid a Second Shute which appears verry bad to pass, and thro' which they passed with their empty canoes. ..." [Clark, November 1, 1805]

Image, 2004, Bradford Island, from Hamilton Island, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Bradford Island, downstream tip, as seen from Hamilton Island. Image taken August 1, 2004.


Lewis and Clark and the Cascade Rapids ...
Lewis and Clark had to portage around the Cascade Rapids in the fall of 1805 and the spring of 1806. Their campsites were located at the upstream end of the Upper Cascades near today's Ashes Lake, and at the Middle Cascades near the location of today's Fort Rains.

Campsite of October 30-31, 1805 and April 12, 1806 ...
Lewis and Clark's campsite of October 30 and October 31, 1805, was on an island off the Washington side of the Columbia, near Ashes Lake. They spent two nights at this spot as they portaged across the trecherous "Lower Falls of the Columbia". On the return, Lewis and Clark camped in the same location on April 12, 1806. This island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir, the waters behind the Bonneville Dam.
[More]

Image, 2004, Table Mountain from Bonneville Dam, North Bonneville, Washington click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Table Mountain and the Bonneville Landslide, Washington, as seen from Cascade Locks, Oregon. View towards the location of Lewis and Clark's campsites of October 30 and 31, 1805 and April 12, 1806, near Ashes Lake, Washington, at the upper end of the Bonneville Landslide. View from Thunder Island, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken November 4, 2004.


Campsite of November 1, 1805 and April 10-11, 1806 ...
On their journey downstream, Lewis and Clark had just passed the "Upper Cascades" and their camp of November 1, 1806 is at the downstream end of their portage, in the vicinity of Fort Rains. The campsite of April 10-11, 1806 is unmarked on any of their maps. It too was located at the lower end of the portage around the "Lower Falls of the Columbia", close to the location of their camp of November 1, 1805.
[More]

Image, 2005, Fort Rains and the North Bank Railroad information signs, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Information signs for Fort Rains and the North Bank Railroad. Image taken February 26, 2005.


Cascade Rapids in 1858 ...
"About 30 miles further up the river we reach the foot of the Cascades, which are a series of rapids 4 miles long, where the river bursts through the eastern part of the Cascade range of mountains, whose basaltic walls rise precipitously over 3,000 feet on either side, presenting a magnificent sight. Below the rapids the current rushes by with great velocity and depth, but small steamboats ply regularly from Portland and Vancouver to the foot of the rapids; thence passengers are carried by stages to the head, where one or two fine steamboats convey them 50 miles to the Dalles. The Hudson Bay Company carried their large trading boats up the rapids by a system called cordelling. Steamboats have gone up one or two miles, and, in one instance, a brig, with every sail set and a moderate gale astern, was carried safely to the foot the railroad, which runs from the head to within a mile and a half of the lower end. At each extremity of the rapids are small military posts."


Source:    United States Senate Report "The Superintendent of the Coast Survey showing the Progress of the Survey during the Year 1858".


Cascade Rapids, etc.

  • Cascades Massacre of 1856 ...
  • Cascades Townsite ...
  • Forts of the Cascade Rapids ...
  • Great Flood of 1894 ...
  • The Portage and Cascade Locks ...


Cascades Massacre of 1856 ...
[More]

Cascades Townsite ...
Today's community of North Bonneville is located on the site of the former town of Cascades, also known as "Lower Cascades". The community of Lower Cascades was at one time the largest town in the Washington Territory. It was an important steamboat stop and the western terminus of the portage road. Slightly downstream was located the military defense post Fort Cascades, built in 1855 to guard the portage road around the Cascade Rapids. Lower Cascades was also at one time home of the Skamania County government. Both the town of Lower Cascades and the post Fort Cascades were destroyed during the Great Flood of 1894. They were never rebuilt.
[More]

The Forts of the Cascades Rapids ...
Throughout history four different forts or blockhouses existed along a rough stretch of the Columbia River Gorge between Hamilton Island and Cascade Locks. This area was known as the "Cascade Rapids". The first fort was Fort Gilliam, established in 1848 and located at the portage as a supply depot. Next came Fort Cascades, built in 1855 at the lower end of the rapids ("Lower Cascades"), and built to defend the portage. Fort Rains came next ("Middle Cascades") and was located at the lower end of the portage around the "Upper Cascades". The last fort built was Fort Lugenbeel, located at the upper end of "Upper Cascades". Today, Fort Rains and Fort Lugenbeel, and the earlier Fort Gilliam, exist only as archaeological sites on present U.S. Army Corp of Engineer land. The location of Fort Cascades can be seen at the Fort Cascades Historic Site, located on Hamilton Island.
[More]

Great Flood of 1894 ...
The "Great Flood of 1894" was the highest-recorded flood along the Columbia of all time. This flood destroyed the town of Cascades. Downstream, a gage at Vancouver, Washington, reached a record 36 feet, while Longview, Washington hit a record 24 feet (June 7, 1894). The force of the flood waters removed several feet of soil and exposed many boulders now visible in the area of Fort Cascades.
[More]

Image, 2014, Moss covered boulders, flood of 1894, Cascades Townsite, Hamilton Island, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Boulders on Hamilton Island uncovered during the flood of 1894. The "Great Flood of 1894" destroyed the town of Cascades and Fort Cascades. Image taken April 7, 2014.


The Portage and Cascade Locks ...
Until the Cascade Canal and Locks opened in 1896, folks traveling up and down the Columbia River had to portage around the Cascade Rapids.

In 1881 construction of a canal was begun to bypass the "Upper Cascades" and it was finished in 1896. This 3,000-foot-long canal, called the Cascade Locks, made the Columbia River passable to The Dalles, Oregon.

In 1937 the Cascade Rapids and the early canal and locks were flooded by backwater from Bonneville Dam.


[More Portage Roads]
[More Cascade Locks]



"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. The postcards now have become a image of history.

Penny Postcard, Cascade Rapids, ca.1910
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Cascade Rapids ("Bridge of the Gods"), ca.1910.
Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1910, "Bridge of the Gods, Columbia River.". View from the Oregon side of the Columbia River. Image shows Greenleaf Peak in the background. Published by Portland Post Card Co., Portland, Oregon. Printed in Germany. Card #7055. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Cascade Rapids, ca.1910
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Cascade Rapids ("Bridge of the Gods"), ca.1910.
Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Bridge of the Gods and Cascades of the Columbia River. On Line of O. W. R. & N. Co.". View from the Oregon side of the Columbia River. Image shows Table Mountain (left) and Greenleaf Peak (right) in the background. Image copyright Weister. Published by Edward Mitchell, San Francisco, California. Card #3182. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]     passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,

[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream - Starvation Creek and Falls, the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls, Warren Creek and Falls, Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls, Lindsey Creek and Falls, and Summit Creek and Falls.]

a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]

[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]

are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],     the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...   :  here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round> Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, ...     The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood> which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on> near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.     I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...     I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark ...     a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped [near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.] is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye






Clark, October 31, 1805 ...
A Cloudy rainey disagreeable morning I proceeded down the river to view with more attention [Cascade Locks area] we had to pass on the river below, the two men with me Jo. Fields & Peter Crusat proceeded down to examine the rapids the Great Shute [Cascade Rapids] which commenced at the Island on which we encamped [Ashes Lake, now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir] Continud with great rapidity and force thro a narrow chanel much compressd. and interspersed with large rocks for a mile, at a mile lower is a verry Considerable rapid at which place the waves are remarkably high, and proceeded on in a old Indian parth 2 miles by land thro a thick wood & hill Side, to the river where the Indians make a portage, from this place I dispatched Peter Crusat (our principal waterman) back to follow the river and examine the practibility of the Canoes passing, as the rapids appeared to continue down below as far as I could See, I with Jo. Fields proceeded on, at a mile below the end of the portage [Fort Rains] ...     at 2 miles lower & 5 below our Camp I passed a village of 4 large houses abandend by the nativs, with their dores bared up, ...     from a Short distance below the vaults the mountain which is but low on the Stard. Side leave the river, and a leavel Stoney open bottom Suckceeds on the Said Std. Side for a great Distance down, the mountains high and rugid on the Lard Side this open bottom is about 2 miles a Short distance below this village is a bad Stoney rapid and appears to be the last in view I observed at this lower rapid the remains of a large and antient Village which I could plainly trace by the Sinks in which they had formed their houses, as also those in which they had buried their fish- from this rapid to the lower end of the portage [vicinity of Fort Cascades at the lower end of Hamilton Island] the river is Crouded with rocks of various Sizes between which the water passes with great velociety createing in many places large Waves, an Island which is Situated near the Lard. Side [Bradford Island] occupies about half the distance the lower point of which is at this rapid. immediately below this rapid the high water passes through a narrow Chanel through the Stard. Bottom forming an Island of 3 miles <wide> Long & one wide, I walked through this Island [Hamilton Island] which I found to be verry rich land, and had every appearance of haveing been at Some distant period Cultivated. at this time it is Covered with grass intersperced with Strawberry vines. I observed Several places on this Island where the nativs had dug for roots and from its lower point I observed 5 Indians in a Canoe below the upper point of an Island near the middle of the river Covered with tall timber [???],    which indued me to believe that a village was at no great distanc below, I could not See any rapids below <for> in the extent of my view which was for a long distance down the river, which from the last rapids [Middle Cascades] widened and had everry appearance of being effected by the tide,- I deturmind to return to Camp 10 miles distant [on an island by Ashes Lake, across from Cascade Locks, Oregon], a remarkable high detached rock Stands in a bottom on the Stard Side [Beacon Rock] near the lower point of this Island on the Stard. Side about 800 feet high and 400 paces around, we call the Beaten rock.     a Brook [Hamilton Creek] falls into the narrow Chanel [Hamilton Slough, today's Greenleaf Slough] which forms the Strawberry Island [Hamilton Island], which at this time has no running water, but has every appearance of dischargeing emence torrents &c. &c. Jo. Fields Shot a Sand hill Crane. I returned by the Same rout on an Indian parth passing up on the N W. Side of the river to our Camp at the Great Shute [an island near Ashes Lake, across from Cascade Locks, now under the waters of Bonneville Reservoir]. found Several Indians from the village, I Smoked with them; Soon after my return two Canoes loaded with fish & Bear grass for the trade below, came down from the village at the mouth of the Catterack River [Klickitat River], they unloaded and turned their Canoes up Side down on the beech, & camped under a Shelveing rock below our Camp ...

This Great Shute or falls [Upper Cascade Rapids] is about a mile with the water of this great river Compressed within the Space of 150 paces in which there is great numbers of both large and Small rocks, water passing with great velocity forming & boiling in a most horriable manner, with a fall of about 20 feet, below it widens to about 200 paces and current gentle for a Short distance. a Short distance above is three Small rockey Islands, and at the head of those falls, three Small rockey Islands are Situated Crosswise the river, Several rocks above in the river & 4 large rocks in the head of the Shute; those obstructions together with the high Stones which are continually brakeing loose from the mountain on the Stard Side and roleing down into the Shute aded to those which brake loose from those Islands above and lodge in the Shute, must be the Cause of the rivers daming up to Such a distance above, <and Show> where it Shows Such evidant marks of the Common current of the river being much lower than at the present day






Clark, November 1, 1805, first draft ...
Set all hands packing the loading over th portage which is below the Grand Shutes and is 940 yards of bad way over rocks & on Slipery hill Sides The Indians who came down in 2 Canoes last night packed their fish over a portage of 2 miles to avoid a 2d Shute. four of them took their canoes over the 1st portage and run the 2d Shute, Great numbers of Sea otters, they are So Cautious that I with deficuelty got a Shute at one to day, which I must have killed but Could not get him as he Sunk ...     We got all our Canoes and baggage below the Great Shute     3 of the canoes being Leakey from injures recved in hauling them over the rocks, obliged us to delay to have them repaired a bad rapid just below us ...    


Clark, November 1, 1805 ...
A verry Cool morning wind hard from the N. E. [Lewis and Clark's camp of October 31, 1805, was across from Cascade Locks, on an island off the Washington shore near Ashes Lake, now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir.] The Indians who arrived last evining took their Canoes on ther Sholders and Carried them below the Great Shute ["Lower Falls of the Columbia", the "Cascade Rapids"], we Set about takeing our Small Canoe and all the baggage by land 940 yards of bad Slippery and rockey way [this rocky location later became the location of the Bridge of the Gods]     The Indians we discoverd took ther loading the whole length of the portage 2 miles, to avoid a Second Shute [Lower Cascades, by Bonneville Dam] which appears verry bad to pass, and thro' which they passed with their empty canoes. Great numbers of Sea Otters [Harbor Seals], they are So cautious that I with dificuelty got a Shot at one to day, which I must have killed, but could not get him as he Sunk

we got all our baggage over the Portage of 940 yards, after which we got the 4 large Canoes over by Slipping them over the rocks on poles placed across from one rock to another, and at Some places along partial Streams of the river. in passing those canoes over the rocks &c. three of them recived injuries which obliged us to delay to have them repared. [the lower end of the portage at Fort Rains] ...






Clark, November 2, 1805 ...
Examined the rapid below us [from their camp at Fort Rains, looking at the Cascade Rapids] more pertcelarly the danger appearing too great to Hazzard our Canoes loaded, dispatched all the men who could not Swim with loads to the end of the portage below, I also walked to the end of the portage with the carriers where I delayed untill everry articles was brought over and canoes arrived Safe. here we brackfast and took a Meridn. altitude 59 45' 45" about the time we were Setting out 7 Squars came over loaded with Dried fish, and bear grass neetly bundled up, Soon after 4 Indian men came down over the rapid in a large canoe.     passed a rapid at 2 miles & 1 at 4 miles opposite the lower point of a high Island on the Lard Side [Bradford Island], and a little below 4 Houses on the Stard. Bank, a Small Creek on the Lard Side [Tanner Creek] opposit Straw berry Island [Hamilton Island], which heads below the last rapid, opposit the lower point of this Island [Hamilton Island] passed three Islands covered with tall timber [today there are two, Ives and Pierce] opposit the Beatin rock [Beacon Rock]    Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side, imediately below on the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses [indentified on Atlas map#79 as the "Wah-clallah Tribe of Shahala Nation", location near today's Skamania and Skamania Landing], which is Situated between 2 Small Creeks [Woodard Creek and Duncan Creek], and are of the Same construction of those above; here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each Side, with Pine, Spruce pine, Cotton wood, a Species of ash, and alder.     at 17 miles passed a rock near the middle of the river [Phoca Rock], about 100 feet high and 80 feet Diamuter,     proceed on down a Smoth gentle Stream of about 2 miles wide, in which the tide has its effect as high as the Beaten rock [Beacon Rock] or the Last rapids at Strawberry Island [Hamilton Island],- Saw great numbers of waterfowl of Different kinds, Such as Swan, Geese, white & grey brants, ducks of various kinds, Guls, & Pleaver [today just below Beacon Rock is Franz National Wildlife Refuge]. ...     we encamped under a high projecting rock on the Lard. Side [Rooster Rock, with Crown Point rising above it],     here the mountains leave the river on each Side [leaving the Columbia River Gorge, Steigerwald Land NWR is on the north and the Sandy River delta is on the south], which from the great Shute to this place is high and rugid [Columbia River Gorge]; thickly Covered with timber principalley of the Pine Species. The bottoms below appear extensive and thickly Covered with wood.     river here about 2 miles wide.     Seven Indians in a Canoe on their way down to trade with the nativs below, encamp with us, those we left at the portage passed us this evening and proceeded on down The ebb tide rose here about 9 Inches, the flood tide must rise here much higher- we made 29 miles to day from the Great Shute [Cascade Locks]-





Columbia River GorgeReturn to
Menu
 



SNAKE RIVER CONFLUENCE | COLUMBIA PLATEAU
COLUMBIA RIVER GORGE | VANCOUVER PLAINS | JOURNEY TO THE PACIFIC
CAMPSITES


HOME | REGIONS | PENNY POSTCARDS | MY CORPS OF DISCOVERY
IMAGE INDEX | LINKS | ABOUT THIS SITE


COLUMBIA RIVER IMAGES - HOME
NORTHWEST JOURNEY - HOME
NORTHWEST BIRDING
RIDGEFIELD NWR - BIRDS
COMPLETE BIRD LIST - PHOTOS
THE BARLOW ROAD
THE COLUMBIA RIVER HIGHWAY
WILDFLOWERS and WEED BLOSSOMS



*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: Historic Cascade Locks website, 2005; Washington State Historical Society website, 2005, "Lasting Legacy".

Sources for the Cascade Rapids, Fort Cascades, Fort Rains, and Fort Lugenbeel:    Beckham, Dr., "This Place is Romantic and Wild", An Historic Overview of the Cascades Area, Fort Cascades, and the Cascades townsite, Washington Territory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers broshure, uploaded on the Columbia Gorge Interpretive Center website, June 2013, retrieved April 2014;    Center for Columbia River History website, 2004;    Corpus Christi Public Library website, 2004, "Mexican War";    Hay, K.G., 2004, The Lewis and Clark Columbia River Water Trail, Timber Press, Portland;    Hitchman, R., 1985, Place Names of Washington, Washington State Historical Society;    NOAA Office of Coast Surveys website, 2005;    NOAA Weather website, 2004;    Skamania County Chamber of Commerce website, 2004;    University of Washington Photo Archives website, 2006;    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Broshure, 2004, "Fort Cascades Trail Guide, 1989 edition";    U.S. GenWeb Project website, 2005, "History of the Pacific Northwest    Oregon and Washington 1889";    U.S. National Park Service website, 2004, 2006, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site;    U.S. National Park Service website, 2004, John Day Fossil Beds;    Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife website, 2014;

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
ColumbiaRiverImages.com/Regions/Places/cascade_rapids.html
© 2016, Lyn Topinka, "ColumbiaRiverImages.com", All rights reserved.
Images are NOT to be downloaded from this website.
April 2014