Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District ... Ridgefield NWR, Washington"
Includes ... Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District ... National Register of Historic Places ... "Belgian Blocks" ... Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR ... Cathedral Park, Oregon ...
Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District ...
The Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District (also known as 45-CL-113H), is located on the Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 14, 1981 (District #81000587). Between approximately 1880 and 1910 basalt chunks were quarried at seven different locations and then barged up Lake River to Portland, Oregon, where they were chipped into paving stones known as "Belgian blocks". Parts of Front, First and Second streets were paved with Belgian blocks between 1880 and 1885. Today, if construction unearths these Belgian blocks the City of Portland is saving them, cleaning them, and then re-using them in historical projects.

Belgian Blocks ...
Belgian blocks were so named because they were first used in Brussels, Belgium, and then were introduced to New York about 1850. The blocks are of a unique shape (narrower at the top than at the base) rather than of a stone type or source location. While the Belgian blocks in Portland were basalt mined at Ridgefield, Belgian blocks used in Tacoma, Washington, nearly 150 miles north of Portland, were made from granite brought in as ship ballast, and sandstone mined in nearby Wilkeson, a small community east of Tacoma. In Portland, the granite brought in as ship ballast was used in the crosswalks (see more below).

The blocks ...
According to a 1983 report which sampled 285 blocks, the average depth was 4.6 inches, average width was 3.9 inches, and average length was 6.2 inches. A larger size was mentioned in an 1890 report "... brick-shaped pieces, some 4x10x15 inches".

Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Belgian Blocks", Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Belgian Block", Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Why the Quarries ??? ...
The Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District's National Register of Historic Places Nomination form (1981) states:

"... Seven basalt cobblestone rock quarries lie on the floodplain of the Columbia River approximately two miles north of Ridgefield, Washington. The floodplain here exhibits a rolling topography, characterized by basalt knolls surrounded by low areas of alluvia silt which are seasonally flooded. The quarries are located in the sides of these knolls, and a rock road of the same material connects the quarries with Lake River. The only visible remains of the quarry operations are the quarries and their associated piles of tailings, and the two sections of rock haul road. The walls of several of the quarries have fallen in, and they are overgrown with trees and brush. ..."

The basalt knolls in which the quarries were worked are Grande Ronde basalt of the Columbia River Basalts .


Columbia River Basalts ...
The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) is massive fissure lava flows which covered quite a bit of Idaho, Washington State, and Oregon. The flows are divided into five formations - the Saddle Mountains, Wanapum, Grande Ronde, Imnaha, and Picture Gorge Basalts. The majority of the flows are Early Miocene and are between 17 and 5.5 million years old. They were erupted from north-south fissures near the present-day Washington-Idaho border. The CRB consists of approximately 300 thick sequences of flood basalt flows, each flow from 10 to over 100 feet in thickness, with an estimated eruptive volume of at least 700 cubic miles, making them the largest documented individual lava flows on Earth. The flows reached maximum thickness of 16,000 feet in the Pasco Basin, and in the Columbia River Gorge, 21 flows poured through forming layers of rock up to 2,000 feet thick.
[More]

Basalt Knolls ...

Image, 2013, Basalt knolls, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Basalt knolls, just north of the Carty Unit (but reached via the Carty Unit), Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 10, 2013.
Image, 2013, Basalt knolls, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Basalt knolls, just north of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 10, 2013.


Panorama ...

Image, 2013, Basalt knolls, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wide-angle panorama, basalt knolls just north of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 10, 2013.


Ridgefield quarry basalt faces ...

Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Portland Streets (written in 1890) ...
Streets, and Street Improvements:

"During the soft months the mellow brown soil was quickly cut into mire, and trodden into mortar. Planks were first used. In about 1858 a macadam road was built out to the Red House, some three miles south, the first of its kind in the State. In 1865 the Nicholson pavement was laid on Front and First streets, and for a number of years was in great favor. It soon began to fail, however, due either to improper construction, or to the extremes of moisture and dryness of our seasons, and, quickly fell into condemnation. In the June floods, moreover, which occasionally overflowed the levee part of the city, it had to be weighted down with rock to be kept in place. As this pavement gave away, the Belgian block was substituted, and now prevails on Front, First and Second streets, from G street on the north, to Jefferson street (with some exception on Second street) on the south. It is a block clipped or split out from the basalt along the river, the principal quarry being near St. Helens. It is obtained in brick-shaped pieces, some 4x10x15 inches. The stone is hard and when evenly laid makes a firm, but noisy, road. By constant use, however, the corners of the blocks are worn down, making a sort of cobble stone surface, which is slippery and difficult to horses drawing heavy loads. Owing to the non-uniformity of the ground beneath, as to firmness, the old sections are becoming warped, hollows and bunches. The constant lifting of the blocks to repair sewer and water pipes, or for street railway purposes, has also worked toward an uneven surface. ...

Cross-walks of the streets are of plank or slabs of stone, the latter a foot or more in breadth by some four or five feet in length, laid treble. Many of them are granite, brought from England or China in ships as ballast, being most cheaply obtained in that manner.

The sidewalks in the business portion of the city are of stone ssquares, quarried from the hills, or, now almost universally, of the artificial stone, manufactured from sand. This is handsome and durable. Brick, with concrete dressing of fine gravel, was used a little in old times, and now remains on a few walks on Front street. The manufactured stone is used extensively around the blocks occupied by fine residences, but for the most part the walks are of plank. ...

In 1885 there were fifty-two and one-half miles of improved streets - thirty miles macadamized, three Belgian blocks, three and one-fourth planks, sixteen and one-fourth graded only."

Source:   Harvey Scott, 1890, History of Portland, Mason & Co., Portland, Chapter 6, p.205-206.


Image, 2014, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Basalt Quarries and Portland Streets information sign, Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2014.
Image, 2014, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Detail, Basalt Quarries and Portland Streets information sign, Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2014. Historic photo is 1917 photograph showing NW Hoyt Street paved with Belgian block.


St. Helens, Oregon "Belgian Blocks" ...
The community of St. Helens, Oregon was at one time home to seven quarries, many which mined the stone for "Belgian Blocks", used to pave many of the streets in nearby Portland.
[More]

Re-using the blocks ...
In 1975 the City of Portland passed an ordinance which calls for the preservation of any cobblestones excavated during construction and maintence activities on city streets. The cobblestones are warehoused by the City and are meant to be reused in appropriate civic historic restoration projects. Cathedral Park, located under the St. Johns Bridge, is one such place the blocks have been re-used.

Cathedral Park, St. Johns, Oregon ...
The City of Portland re-uses the early Belgian Blocks which once paved streets in the downtown area. One location the blocks are found is in Cathedral Park, under the St. Johns Bridge, in St. Johns, Oregon.

Image, 2011, Cathedral Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Belgian blocks underneath park bench, Cathedral Park, St. Johns, Oregon. Image taken November 28, 2011.
Image, 2011, Cathedral Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Belgian blocks underneath park bench, Cathedral Park, St. Johns, Oregon. Image taken November 28, 2011.
Image, 2011, Cathedral Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Belgian blocks underneath park bench, Cathedral Park, St. Johns, Oregon. Image taken November 28, 2011.
Image, 2011, Cathedral Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Belgian blocks underneath park bench, Cathedral Park, St. Johns, Oregon. Image taken November 28, 2011.


National Register of Historic Places ...

Information from the National Register of Historic Places Nomination, "Archaeological Survey of Lower Lake River and Bachelor Island Slough, Clark County, Washington", September 1975, and "Cultural Resources Assessment of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington.", October 1980


Physical Appearance:

"Seven basalt cobblestone rock quarries lie on the floodplain of the Columbia River approximately two miles north of Ridgefield, Washington. The floodplain here exhibits a rolling topography, characterized by basalt knolls surrounded by low areas of alluvia silt which are seasonally flooded. The quarries are located in the sides of these knolls, and a rock road of the same material connects the quarries with Lake River. The only visible remains of the quarry operations are the quarries and their associated piles of tailings, and the two sections of rock haul road. The walls of several of the quarries have fallen in, and they are overgrown with trees and brush.

One quarry and part of the rock haul road have been inventoried on an Archaeological Site Survey Record as 45-CL-113. This site is an extensive quarry located at the northeast end of a large meadow. A rock road runs across the meadow from the quarry to Lake River. ...

The Columbia River basalt outcroppings, which are Miocene to Pliocene in age, provide moderate relief ranging from zero to 40 feet. Thus, most of the knolls rise well above the high water line.

The knolls are covered with Oregon white oak savannah, while willow and other emergent and submergent marsh plants grow in the alluvial areas. A narrow belt of Oregon ash defines the high water line in some areas. Douglas fir grows on the highest ground at the eastern edge of the area.

Refuge management objectives on this unit are to preserve the natural Columbia River floodplain and to provide habitat for migrating waterfowl. The only active management within the nominated area is limited summer grazing by cattle. The area was probably being grazed at the time the quarries were in operation, since other parts of the unit have been farmed for over 100 years. Except for a limited amount of fencing and some jeep trails, the land retains its natural character.

Public use of the Carty Unit is generally limted to wildlife observation, hiking, fishing and berry picking. A self-guiding interpretive trail lies on the east end of the unit, partially within the nominated area and passing by one of the quarry sites. The area along the trail and around the south end of the nominated district is used extensively by school groups for environmental education.

Statement of Significance, 1880-1910.

The Basalt Cobblestone Quarries represent a significant technological period in the development of Portland, Oregon and other American cities, and a turn of the century industry in Ridgefield, Washington.

As Portland grew from a frontier village into an urban and commercial center in the second half of the Nineteenth Century, some sort of street improvements quickly became imperative. The rainy winter climate of Portland turned dirt streets into impassable muddy quagmires, while in summer the streets dried out into dust bowls.

Several different materials, including wooden planks and macadam, were used in the search for a satisfactory paving material that could withstand the extremes of Portland's climate. Beginning about 1880, basalt blocks were quarried near Ridgefield and barged upriver to Portland for use as paving material. The basalt was chipped into brick-shaped pieces of a standard size, called Belgian block, and laid on the streets. Sewer blocks were also cut from the quarries.

By 1885, three miles of Portland's streets were paved with Belgian block (1) and eventually the paving may have covered as much as 30 miles of streets (2) before its use was discontinued. It was used in both east and west Portland.

The stone was hard, and when it was evenly laid it made a firm - and noisy - street. Constant use created problems, however, because the corners of the blocks wore down. They formed a cobblestone surface that was slippery when wet and water froze in the joints during cold weather. Horses pulling heavy loads could not get traction on the slick surface. The unfirm ground on which the blocks were laid caused the paving to warp, and the constant lifting of the blocks for sewer and water line repairs (Portland doesn't have alleyways for utilities) and the installation of street car tracks also contributed toward an uneven surface. The Belgian block paving eventually proved as unsatisfactory as the other paving materials in use at the time.

Much of the cobblestone, or Belgian block, is still intact under the streets of Portland, having been covered over with asphalt. A survey by the city engineer's office estimates that there could be as much as 4.8 million square feet of the stones (3).

While most of the stones came from the Ridgefield quarries, the crosswalks were originally ships' ballast. Crosswalks of the streets were made of slabs of granite a foot wide and four to five feet long, laid treble. The granite was brought from England or China in ships as ballast (4). On the return trip, the ballast was replaced by cargo from the Pacific Northwest. This explains the presence of Chloris radiata, a hardy, tropical grass native to Jamaica, in Portland. It is unknown anywhere else in Oregon, but it can be found in Portland pushing up through the asphalt that covers the old cobblestones (5). Apparently the grass seed was on a cargo from a tropical port and became attached to the ballast, which then was used for street paving.

Portland City Ordinance No.139670, passed by the City Council in 1975, calls for the preservation of cobblestones excavated during construction and maintence activities on city streets. The cobblestones are warehoused by the City and are meant to be reused in appropriate civic historic restoration projects. In 1977, the City estimated it had 60,000 cleaned stones and 200,000 uncleaned stones on hand (6).

The stones have been reused in a number of park projects including a short path in Washington Park, curbs along the Rose City Golf Course, fill in around street tree plantings, and under benches in Pettygrove Park.

Although they represented a significant industry in Ridgefield, very little is recorded about the quarries from which the cobblestones were obtained. The James Carty family owned the land and John (Jack) McKie operated the quarries, apparently leasing the sites from the Cartys. McKie worked under contract to the Portland Contracting Company and employed many Ridgefield residents. ...

Work book pages in the possession of the McKie family indicate that the quarries were still in operation in April 1903, and the oral family history states that the contract expired in 1909 (10).

Although the local significance of the quarries was short-lived, they played a significant role in the economic and cultural growth of Nineteenth Century Portland and Ridgefield. Since Portland was not the only American city searching for a satisfactory paving material for its streets during the Nineteenth Century, on a national level the quarries represent an important technological experiment in the evolution of American cities."


(1) H.W. Scott, History of Portland, Oregon, (Syracuse, N.Y. 1890), p.206.
(2) The Sunday Oregonian, 19 May 1974.
(3) Oregon Journal, 15 July 1974.
(4) Scott, p.206.
(5) The Sunday Oregonian, 19 May 1974.
(6) Doug Bridges, memorandum to Bob Gustafson, (City of Portland, Oregon: Bureau to Planning), 15 June 1977.
(10) Mrs. Allan McKie, letter to James E. Carty, 28 May 1975.


Source:   Steven E. Thomsen, Bureau of Street & Structural Engineering, 1983, Report on Belgian Block Paving, City of Portland, Oregon, April 1983, and taken from the National Register of Historic Places, Inventory -- Nomination Form, "Archaeological Survey of Lower Lake River and Bachelor Island Slough, Clark County, Washington", September 1975, and "Cultural Resources Assessment of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington.", October 1980.



Quarry Stories ...

"Several stories concerning the quarries are retained in the oral histories of the Carty and McKie families. For example, the rock was removed from the quarries by blasting with dynamite. A man named John McKay was killed on December 21, 1892 while tamping a charge of powder. To dispel the curse of his death, a photograph was taken of the scene to find the ghost. If a face or figure was found in the rock, it was blasted out to lay to rest the evil spirit responsible for the death. This Scottish quarryman's custom allayed the fears of the workmen that there would be another accident.

Another story involves a bookkeeper who absconded with the payroll. Consequently, John McKie worked the last year of the contract by himself because he could not pay anone to help him. A second story about the payroll tells of Stewart McKie, the oldest son, going with his father to all the saloons to pay the workmen. Stewart, who was only five or six years old, carried all the gold in a gunnysack that he dragged behind him. It was so heavy he needed help when he came to the saloon steps, but no one ever bothered him or the gold.

The most intriguing tale of the quarries comes from the Carty family. It seems two foremen, who paid the men in gold, hid their money near the quarries. They were killed in an explosion and the $10,000 stash was never found."

("Stories" from The Columbian, 13 December 1978)


Source:   Steven E. Thomsen, Bureau of Street & Structural Engineering, 1983, Report on Belgian Block Paving, City of Portland, Oregon, April 1983, and taken from the National Register of Historic Places, Inventory -- Nomination Form, "Archaeological Survey of Lower Lake River and Bachelor Island Slough, Clark County, Washington", September 1975, and "Cultural Resources Assessment of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington.", October 1980.



From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 5, 1805 ...
Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I [s]lept but verry little last night [Post Office Lake, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island [one of the islands of the Ridgefield Refuge] close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid- we Set out <at about Sun rise> early here the river is not more than 3/4 of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side [quite possibly the location of today's Campbell Lake] passed 2 houses about 1/2 a mile from each other on the Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in its mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers [Bachelor Island] Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] at 9 [8?] miles I observed on the Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] which passes on the Stard Side of this Island [Bachelor Island] a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village [Cathlapotle Village, near where Lewis and Clark camped on March 29, 1806, a place now known as Wapato Portage], the front of which occupies nearly 1/4 of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens to about 1 1/2 miles. ...    about 1 1/2 miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point [Warrior Point, Sauvie Island], we passed a Chanel 1/4 of a mile wide [Multnomah Channel] which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island [Hayden Island, at this point Lewis and Clark had not discovered Hayden Island and Sauvie Island were two separate islands]     a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel [St. Helens, Oregon], a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit [Lewis River floodplain, home of Woodland, Washington, possibly more of an "island" in 1805 ???], and 2 Small Islands, below [today's Burke and Martin Islands], here we met 2 canoes from below,- below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river [Martin Bluff], the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine     an extensive low Island [Deer Island], Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with <Small> grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer ...     below the lower point of this Island [Deer Island] a range of high hills which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, [Lewis and Clark are passing Goble, Oregon, and the area around the Trojan Nuclear Power Facility     The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river [Kalama, Washington]. We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man- we landed on the Lard. Side & camped [near Prescott Beach, Oregon] a little below the mouth of a creek [Kalama River] on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned-;     here the river is about one and a half miles wide. and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley [Columbian Valley] which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River [Sandy River] to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable- I saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call <Wap-pa-too Columbia> from the root or plants growing Spontaniously in this valley only ...     We made 32 miles to day by estimation-






Clark, March 29, 1806 ...
we Set out very early this morning [from their camp on Deer Island] and proceeded to the head of deer island [Deer Island, Oregon] and took brackfast. the morning was very cold wind Sharp and keen off the rainge of Mountains to the East Covered with snow [Cascade Mountain Range]. the river is now riseing very fast and retards our progress very much as we are compelled to keep out at Some distance in the Curent to clear the bushes, and fallin trees and drift logs makeing out from the Shore. dureing the time we were at Brackfast a Canoe with three Indians of the Clan-nar-min-na-mon Nation came down, ...     they reside on Wappato Inlet [Multnomah Channel] which is on the S W. side about 12 miles above our encampment of the last night [Deer Island] and is about 2 miles from the lower point, four other Tribes also reside on the inlet and Sluce which passes on the South W. Side of the Island [Sauvie Island], ...    we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island [Sauvie Island] accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the Island [Sauvie Island, the other channel being today's Multnomah Channel] was the proper one. we prosued their advice and Crossed into the mouth of the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks River [Lewis River] which is about 200 yards wide and a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high. The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some distance up it. Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on this river. at 3 oClock P. M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tle Village [Cathlapotle Village, today within the Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit] of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island [Bachelor Island]. ...     we purchased wappatoe and Some pashaquar roots.     gave a Medal of the Small Size [Jefferson Peace Medal] to the principal Chief, and at 5 oClock reembarked and proceeded up [on Lake River] on the N E. of an Island [Bachelor Island] to an inlet [??? perhaps drainage from Carty Lake] about 1 mile [Lewis says 2 miles] above the village and encamped on a butifull grassy plac [Wapato Portage], where the nativs make a portage of their Canoes and Wappato roots to and from a large pond at a Short distance [Carty Lake]. in this pond [Carty Lake] the nativs inform us they Collect great quantities of pappato, which the womin collect by getting into the water, Sometimes to their necks holding by a Small canoe and with their feet loosen the wappato or bulb of the root from the bottom from the Fibers, and it imedeately rises to the top of the water, they Collect & throw them into the Canoe, those deep roots are the largest and best roots. Great numbers of the whistling Swan, Gees and Ducks in the Ponds. ...     we made 15 miles to day only.



Lewis, March 29, 1806 ...
We set out early this morning and proceeded along the side of Deer Island [Deer Island]; halted at 10 A. M. near its upper point and breakfasted. here we were joined by three men of the Clan-nah-min-na-mun nation. the upper point of this Island [Deer Island] may be esteemed the lower side or commencement of the Columbian valley. after breakfast we proceeded on and at the distance of 14 miles from our encampment of the last evening [on Deer Island] we passed a large inlet 300 yds in width [Multnomah Channel] this inlet or arm of the river extends itself to the South 10 or 12 M. to the hills on that side of the river and receives the waters of a small creek [Moulton suggest McCarty Creek] which heads with killamucks river [Tillamook River], and that of a bayau which passes out of the Columbia about 20 miles above, the large Island thus formed we call wappetoe island [Sauvie Island] ...     on the North side of the columbia a little above the entrance of this inlet [Multnomah Channel] a considerable river [Lewis River] discharges itself. this stream the natives call the Cah-wh-na-hi-ooks. it is 150 yards wide and at present discharges a large body of water, tho' from the information of the same people it is not navigable but a short distance in consequence of falls and rappids a tribe called the Hul-lu-et-tell reside on this river above it's entr. at the distance of three miles above the entrance of the inlet [Multnomah Channel] on the N. side behind the lower point of an island [Bachelor Island] we arrived at the village of the Cath-lah-poh-tle wich consists of 14 large wooden houses [Cathlapotle Village, located on the Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR].   here we arrived at 3 P. M. ...    after remaining at this place 2 hours we set out & continued our rout between this island [Bachelor Island] , which we now call Cath-lah-poh-tle after the nation, and the Lard shore. at the distance of 2 miles we encamped in a small prarie on the main shore [Wapato Portage], having traveled 19 miles by estimate.     the river rising fast ..."




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources: "Historylink.org" website, 2011; Scott, H., 1890, History of Portland, Mason & Co., Portland, Chapter 6, p.206-207; "Tacoma News Tribune", April 13, 2011, "That's not rubble along the route of Sound Transit's Sounder project, it's history"; Thomsen, S.E., 1983, Report on Belgian Block Paving, City of Portland, Oregon, April 1983, and taken from the National Register of Historic Places, Inventory -- Nomination Form, "Archaeological Survey of Lower Lake River and Bachelor Island Slough, Clark County, Washington", September 1975, and "Cultural Resources Assessment of the Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington.", October 1980; U.S. Fish and Wilflife Service, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), September 2010.

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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May 2014