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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Astoria, Oregon"
Includes ... Astoria ... "Celebrating 200 Years" ... "Clatsop Pioneers", The Spokesman-Review, 1895 ... National Register of Historic Places ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2009, Astoria, Oregon, from Clatsop Spit, click to enlarge
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Astoria, Oregon, as seen from Clatsop Spit. Image taken September 27, 2009.


Astoria ...
Astoria, Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 13, just upstream of Youngs Bay, and downstream of Tongue Point. Lewis and Clark camped in this vicinity during November and December 1805, while building their winter quarters at Fort Clatsop. Astoria is connected to the Washington side of the Columbia River by the Astoria-Megler Bridge, and Coxcomb Hill, home of the Astoria Column, rises within the city and offers good views of Astoria and the surrounding area. The westernmost tip of Astoria is known as Smith Point. Astoria is named after it's founder, John Jacob Astor (see Early History below).

Image, 2012, Astoria street scene, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Astoria, Oregon. Taken from window of moving car. Image taken July 31, 2012.
Image, 2009, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Astoria, Oregon, street scene. Photographed from moving car. Image taken August 8, 2009.


Lewis and Clark and Astoria ...
Lewis and Clark arrived at Tongue Point on November 27, 1805, and spent ten days at this camp while they built their winter quarters at Fort Clatsop, where they spent the next four months. The men left the Astoria area on March 23, 1806, heading back home.

Columbia River from Astoria ...
In 1841 Charles Wilkes, of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, describes the beauty of the Astoria area.

"... In point of beauty of situation, few places will vie with Astoria. It is situated on the south side of the Columbia river, eleven miles from cape Disappointment, as the crow flies. From Astoria there is a fine view of the high promontory of Cape Diappointment, and the ocean bounding it on the west; the Chinook Hills and Point Ellice, with its rugged peak, on the north; Tongue Point and Katalamet Range on the east; and a high background, bristling with lofty pines, to the south. The ground rises from the river gradually to the top of a ridge five hundred feet in elevation. This was originally covered with a thick forest of poines: that part reclaimed by the first occupants is again growing up in brushwood. From all parts of the ground the broad surface of the river is in view. ..."

Source:   Wilkes, May 22, 1841

Views of the Columbia River from Astoria ...

Image, 2005, Columbia River from Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River from Astoria, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2005.
Image, 2005, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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View from Astoria, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2005.
Image, 2003, Columbia River and Tongue Point, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Tongue Point, as seen from Astoria, Oregon. Image taken August 2, 2003.
Image, 2004, Tongue Point, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Tongue Point, as seen from Astoria, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2005.
Image, 2005, Western Gull, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Western Gull, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2005.


Early Astoria ...
Astoria is Oregon's oldest city, being founded in March 1811 by the New York financier, John Jacob Aster and the Pacific Fur Company. Aster sent fur traders aboard the ship Tonquin to establish a trading post which they named Fort Astoria. Astor’s Pacific Fur Company was in a race with the British North West Company to reach the Columbia River and stake a claim to the fur trade in the region.

"... By 1810 he [John Jacob Aster] decided to expand his operations from the Great Lakes region to the rich fur territory of the Northwest, and incorporated the Pacific Fur Company to do so. Astor held the majority of stock, and the rest was distributed among partners including Wilson Price Hunt, Duncan McDougal, Donald McKenzie, John Clarke, and others. Except for Astor and Hunt, most of the partners were Canadians who had previously worked for the North West Company. On September 8, 1810, the first Astorians, as the Pacific Fur Company men were known, sailed from New York in the ship Tonquin, which reached the Columbia in the spring of 1811. The partners on board selected a point on the south bank of the river and built a post they called Astoria, where the modern Oregon city of the same name is now located. Meanwhile, a second party, under Hunt, left St. Louis in March 1811, and reached Astoria a year later after a particularly grueling overland journey. ..." ["HistoryLink.org" website, 2006]

Alexander Ross, a member of the Aster party of 1811, described the founding of Astoria in his narrative "Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River":

"... On the fourth day after our landing, we planted some potatoes and sowed a few garden seeds, and on the 16th of May we laid the foundations of our first building; but in order to procure suitable timber for the purpose, we had to go back some distance - the wood on the site being so large and unmanageable; and for want of cattle to haul it, we had to carry it on our shoulders, or drag it along the ground - a task of no ordinary difficulty. For this purpose, eight men were harnessed, and they conveyed in six days all the timber required for a building or store of sixty feet long by twenty-six broad. On the 18th, as soon as the foundation was completed, the establishment was named Astoria, in honour of Astor, the projector of the enterprise. ..." [Ross, 1849, narrative of May 1811]

In 1812, the U.S. declared war on Great Britain, and in 1813 Astoria was sold (under duress) to the British North West Company. The settlement was renamed Fort George for the then King of England. Astoria continued to be known as Fort George for more than 20 years, although the name "Astoria" never quite died out.

"... Here it was that the negotiation between the two great functionaries, M'Dougall and M'Tavish, commenced. The terms were soon adjusted, and the prices fixed. The whole of the goods on hand, both at Astoria and throughout the interior, were delivered over to the North-West Company, at 10 per cent. on cost and charges. The furs were valued at so much per skin. The whole sales amounted to 80,500 dollars: M'Tavish giving bills of exchange on the agents for the amount, payable in Canada. This transaction took place on the 16th of October, and was considered fair and equitable on both sides ..." [Ross, 1849]

"... On the 12th day of December, the death-warrant of short-lived Astoria was signed. On that day, Captain Black went through the customary ceremony of taking possession, not only of Astoria, but of the whole country. ... The name of Astoria was now changed to that of Fort George ..." [Ross, 1849]

In 1818, the British surrendered Fort George to the Americans, however Fort George continued to be used by the North West Company.

In 1821 the British North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company, and in 1825 Dr. John McLoughlin moved the center of operations of the Hudson Bay Company to Fort Vancouver, in Washington, 100 miles upstream.

In 1838 the "Map of the United States Territory of Oregon West of the Rocky Mountains, Exhibiting the various Trading Depots or Forst occupied by the British Hudson Bay Company, connected with the Western and northwestern Fur Trade. Compiled in the Bureau of Topographical Engineers, from the latest authorities, under the direction of Col. J.J. Abert, by Wash: Hood." had Astoria labeled "Ft. Astoria or Clatsop or Ft. George".

F.A. Wislizenus, M.D., in "A Journey to the Rocky Mountains in 1839" wrote (published in 1840):

"... Fort George, the Astoria of the past, consists simply of a blockhouse occupied by only three or four men, whose duty it is to note the arrival of vessels and pilot them. ..."

Rev. Gustavus Hines wrote about the Fort George of 1840 (published in 1852):

"... Fort George consists of three small block-houses, one of which is occupied by Mr. Birney and family, and the others for purposes of trading. ..." [Hines, May 23, 1840]

In 1841 Charles Wilkes, with the U.S. Exploring Expedition, described Astoria.

"... In the morning we had a view of the somewhat famous Astoria, which is any thing but what I should wish to describe. Half a dozen log houses, with as many sheds, and a pig-sty or two, are all that it can boast of, and even these appear to be rapidly going to decay. The Company pay little regard to it, and the idea of holding or improving it as a post, has long since been given up. The headquarters of their operations have been removed to Vancouver, eighty miles further up the river, since which Astoria has merely been held for the convenience of their vessels. It boasts of but one field, and that was in potatoes, which I can, however, vouch for as being very fine. In former times it had its gardens, forts, and banqueting halls; and from all accounds, when it was the head-quarters of the Northwest Company, during their rivalship with the Hudson bay Company, there was as jovial a set residing here, as ever were met together. I have had the pleasure of meeting with several of the survivors, who have recounted their banquetings, &c. ..." [Wilkes, May 22, 1841]

In 1847 the first post office west of the Rocky Mountains was opened in Astoria to serve a population of 250.

In 1856, the town of Astoria was officially incorporated, having gained the reputation of being one of the wildest towns on the West Coast.


"Celebrating 200 Years" ...
There are two "Astoria Entrance Monuments", one at Smith's Point and one at 33rd and Leif Erickson Drive. The large octagonal concrete pylons originally stood together on either side of the Lower Columbia River Highway (now 54th Steet). They were erected by the Kiwanis Club in 1925. In 1983 they were separated and relocated to their current locations and the "Welcome to Astoria" signs were added. The "Celebrating 200 Years" banners were added for the year 2011, Astoria's Bi-centennial.

Image, 2011, Astoria, Celebrating 200 Years, click to enlarge
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"Celebrating 200 Years", Astoria, Oregon. "Welcome to Astoria" monument at 33rd and Leif Erickson Drive. Image taken October 25, 2011.


Clatsop Pioneers ...
"The Spokesman-Review", Friday, November 22, 1895:

"Clatsop Pioneers"

"P.W. Gillette writes to the Oregonian regarding old days in Clatsop county. The following extracts are taken from the article:

Clatsop is the oldest settled county, and Astoria the oldest town in the state. The exploring expedition sent out by the government of the United States, under command of Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, erected log houses on the west bank fo the river "Netdle", at a point named by them "Fort Clatsop", where they spent the winter of 1805 and 1806. Remains of some of their cabins could be seen as late as 1850, and in 1852 I walked from Clatsop plains to the place of their encampment on the same trail opened and used by them in going to and from the ocean. It had ever since been kept open by use of Indians, elk and other wild animals. The Indian name of this beautiful little river Netdle has long since been dropped, and is only known and remembered by a few of the oldest settlers. It has taken the name of "Lewis & Clark", which it will doubtless forever keep. Indian names, like themselves, will be soon forgotten.

But the first permanent settlement in Clatsop county was not made until April 12, 1811, when the ship "Tonquin", a vessel sent out from New York by John Jacob Astor, disembarked 16 men with tools, provisions, utensils and supplies, who were to co-operate with a large force of men, sent across the plains by Mr. Astor for the purpose of establishing an extensive fur trading business at the mouth of the Columbia river. These men immediately set to work clearing land, planting seeds, constructing a fort for protection against Indians and houses in which to live. They named the place Astoria in honor of its founder. In 1813, the British took possession of Astoria and Mr. Astor's property was transferred to the "Northwest Company", an English company. Later on Astoria fell into the hands of the Hudson Bay Company, also an English company, in whose hands it remained until the home-seekers of the United States came and took up the lands under treaty stipulation between the two countries. After taking Astoria the British named it "Fort George", and when I went there in 1852 all of the Indians and some of the old white settlers still called it Fort George. The peninsula on which Astoria stands, or "Smith's point" (now Taylor's point), was known as "Point George" in 1811, when the Tonquin arrived there.

In 1841, the Methodists established a mission on Clatsop plains ...

In the early part of 1843, A. Trask, W.T. Perry and W.W. Raymond came to Clatsop plains, and later in the same year came William Hobson and family, Thomas Owens and familiy, N. Eberman, George Summers and Samuel Hall. Trask and Perry remained but a few years in Clatsop county. Trask moved to and became a pioneer in Tillamook county, and "Trask river" now perpetuates his name. W.W. Raymond settled at "Tansy point", now the embryo city of Flavel. Raymond was Indian agent there, and in 1852 claimed to have over 600 Indians under his care. ... Sanuel Hall was a bachelor ...

The immigration of 1843 was the first of any magnitude that ever crossed the plains. It consisted of 111 wagons, with 300 males over 16 years of age, and numbering in all about 1000 persons. Many of these never reached Oregon, some died on the road, some became disheartened and turned back, others went to California. ...

H.H. Hunt and Ben Woods crossed the plains in 1843, but did not go to Clatsop until 1844, when they built "Hunt's mill". This was the first sawmill ever built on the Columbia river. It stood near the place now known as Clifton (J.W. & V. Cook's cannery), and I think they own the old millsite. Mr. Hunt selected this place on account of the water power there. He hauled the mill irons for this mill across the plains, which, considering the great distance, the many dangers and almost insurmountable obstacles to meet and overcome, the road in many places to locate and build, was an Herculean task to perform. The old French ship Sylvia de Grass, early in 1850, loaded with lumber at this mill for San Francisco. On her way down the river, at high tide, she struck on a sunken rock, a short distance above Upper Astoria, and when the tide fell the ship's back was broken. Her great hulk hung on this rock more than a quarter of a century, a mournful signal of the hidden danger. Had she made quick dispatch, her cargo of lumber would have brought the enormous sum of $150 to $200 per 1000 feet. A government buoy now marks the danger spot, and the old Sylvia de Grasse, as well as the old mill, are forever gone."


Astoria in 1858 ...

"... Between the last two points [Point Adams and Tongue Point] like the rival villages of Upper and Lower Astoria. The lower is the most western, and on the location established by the Pacific Fur Company in 1811, and to which was given the name of Astoria. A large saw-mill is in operation here, and a military post was established but abandoned a few years since. The place contains less than fifty houses, and at one time, as a landing place, had an unenviable reputation on account of the character of the "beach combers". The name of the place was changed to Fort George in 1813, on being taken by the sloop-of-war Raccoon. The original name was restored in 1818.

At Upper Astoria is located the custom-house, off which is the rendezvous of the United State revenue cutter. A large saw-mill is built here; and a government military road is being opened to Salem, on the Willamette river. Between the village and Tongue Point lies the wreck of the Silvie de Grace. ..."

Source:   U.S. Senate Report "Coast Survey, showing the Progress of the Survey During the Year 1858".


Street scenes ...

Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Street scene, Astoria, Oregon, with Columbia River in the background. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Steet scene, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.
Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Steet scene, Columbia River Coffee Roaster, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken February 2, 2013.


Astoria Places, etc.

  • Astoria Column ...
  • Astoria-Megler Bridge ...
  • Astoria Riverwalk ...
  • Astoria Victory Monument (Doughboy Monument) ...
  • "Butterfly Fleet" ...
  • Cannery Pier Hotel ...
  • Columbia River Maritime Museum ...
  • Columbia River Packers Association (CRPA) ...
  • Columbia River Viewing Tower ...
  • Coxcomb Hill ...
  • Customhouse, 1852 ...
  • Elmore Cannery ...
  • Ferry Landing (14th Street Pilot Station) ...
  • Fort Astoria ...
  • Hanthorn Cannery ...
  • Josephson's Smokehouse ...
  • Kinney Cannery ...
  • Liberty Theatre ...
  • Lightship Columbia ...
  • Maritime Memorial ...
  • Murals ...
  • Pilot Boat Peacock ...
  • Riverfront Trolley, "Old300" ...
  • Safeway Store (Astoria's first cannery location) ...
  • Smith Point ...
  • Union Fisherman's Packing Company ...
  • Union Fisherman's Packing Company, Alderbrook Station ...
  • Uppertown Firefighter's Museum (Astoria Fire House No.2) ...
  • Whispering Giant Scupture "Ikala Nawan" ...
  • MORE Street scenes ...


Astoria Column ...
The Astoria Column was built in 1926, is 125 feet high, has 164 steps spiraling to the top, and has 14 bas-relief pictorials illustrating the history of Astoria. The Astoria Column was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 (Structure #74001681).
[More]

Image, 2004, Astoria Column, click to enlarge
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Astoria Column, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken May 25, 2004.


Astoria-Megler Bridge ...
Construction on the the Astoria-Megler Bridge was begun in 1962, completed in 1966, and formally dedicated August 27, 1966. It stretches 4.1 miles (21,474 feet) from Astoria, Oregon, across the mouth of the Columbia River, to Point Ellice, Washington. The bridge replaced the Astoria-Megler Ferry as a vital link in the continuation of Interstate 101.
[More]

Image, 2005, Columbia River from Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River from Astoria, Oregon. The Astoria-Megler bridge is in the background. Image taken February 19, 2005.
Image, 2004, Astoria-Megler Bridge, from Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Astoria-Megler Bridge, from Astoria, Oregon. Image taken June 16, 2004.


Astoria Riverwalk ...
(to come)

Image, 2012, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Astoria Riverwalk, over pilings, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 1, 2012.


Astoria Victory Monument (Doughboy Monument) ...
Also known as the "Soldiers' Monument" and the "Doughboy Monument", the Astoria Victory Monument was constructed in 1926 and re-dedicated in 1991. It was designed by architect Charles T. Diamond and sculpted by John Paulding. Casting was done in 1920 by the American Aret Bronze Foundry, Chicago. The central octagonal building is topped by a bronze statue of an infantryman of the First American Division, whose charge at the hilltop village of Cantigny, France, 20 miles southeast of Amiens, on May 28, 1918, was regarded as the first American victory in World War I. The monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 (Architecture/Engineering, #84000466).

"Astoria's Victory Monument, commemorating Clatsop County servicemen of the First World War, was constructed in concrete in 1926 in the Spanish Colonial/Mediterranean style. Also designed to serve as a public comfort station, the structure has been unaltered since its construction. It is a well-known and highly visible landmark in the Clatsop County seat.

Located at a five-way intersection, the monument rests on a triangular parcel whose dimensions are approximately 40 feet on the west; 55 feet on the north, and 70 feet on the south. The structure is surrounded by a small strip of grass and concrete sidewalks.

Dominating the monument is a ten foot bronze statue, entitled "DOUGHBOY OVER THE TOP AT CANTIGNY." The statue is a replica of one created by American sculptor John Paulding (1873-c.1938) to commemorate America's first victory in Europe during World War I. The central, octagonal building supports the statue's pedestal, and its roof is clad with flat tile shingles which curved tile caps at each of the eight corners -- all now painted black. The windows, on the westerly and easterly sides are protected with cast-iron screens of an inverted fish scale design. ...

The small bronze plaque mounted on the statuary base reads:   "CAST BY AMERICAN ART BRONZE FOUNDRY/ J. PAULDING SC (copyright symbol) 1920 CHICAGO." Bronze tablets above the drinking fountain basins give the following text:   "SOLDIERS MONUMENT / DEDICATED / TO SOLDIERS OF WORLD WR / OF CLATSOP COUNTY / BY THE / CITY OF ASTORIA / JULY 21, 1926." ...

Architect Charles T. Diamond, a Canadian who had lived 18 years in the U.S>, half of them in Astoria, has left numerous buildings in the area to his credit ...   The Victory Monument was his last major project before moving to Portland in October, 1926. ...

The announcement that the American Legion would put up the monument appeared on March 5 of 1926. The Legion chose John Paulding's OVER THE TOP AT CANTIGNY, a renowned sculpture that represented the American doughboy in full field equipment. The action-charged pose embodied the courage and determination that had been shown by American troops at the battle of Cantigny on May 28, 1918. Considered the first American victory in Europe in the first World War, the battle demonstrated the heroisim and tenacity of our troops in the face of an equally determined adversary.

Dedicated at the Astoria's Founders Celebration on July 21, 1926, the monument cost $1350 for the statue and $3200 for the base. An audience of 5,000 persons heard speeches ... However, the importance of the event was somewhat eclipsed by the dedications of the Astoria Column and Lewis and Clark salt cairn (both listed on the National Register) the next day.

The original sculptor of the monument's statue, John Paulding, was born in Arcanum, Ohio, c.1873-1878. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and exhibited there seve times between 1910 and 1927. ... [He] died c.1938. ... "

Source:    Victory Monument, 1984, National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, #84000466.


Image, 2012, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Astoria Victory Monument, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken October 1, 2012.


"Butterfly Fleet" ...
(to come)

Penny Postcard, Columbia River Fishing Fleet, ca.1907, click to enlarge
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Penny Postcard: Columbia River Fishing Fleet, ca.1907. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1907, "Columbia River Fishing Fleet.". These small gillnet fishing boats were powered by two triangular sails, giving rise to the name "Butterfly Fleet". Published by Edward H. Mitchell, San Francisco, California. Card #511. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2012, Astoria mural, click to enlarge
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Mural, "Butterfly Fleet", Astoria, Oregon. Wauna Federal Credit Union Building. Taken from window of moving car. Image taken July 31, 2012.


Cannery Pier Hotel ...
The Cannery Pier Hotel is located on the western end of Astoria, downstream of the Astoria-Megler Bridge. The hotel, which opened in 2005, was built upon the 100-year-old pilings of the Union Fisherman's Cooperative Packing Company Cannery. The Hotel reflects both the architecture and heritage of the original 1900s Union Fisherman's Cannery building.
[More]

"The Cannery Pier Hotel rests on the 100 year-old pilings that formerly supported the Union Fisherman's Cooperative Packing Company. Formed in 1897, it was the result of a turbulent time that favored big business cannery owners instead of the fishermen. Disputes with cannery owners about prices per fish started in 1876, with fishermen going on strike, and in 1880 they formed the Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union. Tensions came to a head in 1896 when the fishermen went on strike again. Two strike-breakers were shot and more violence threatened, and the Oregon National Guard was called in to break the strike. After this, about 200 fishermen (mostly Finnish) came together, pooled their resources, and formed the Union Fisherman's Cooperative Packing Company. By 1904, it had become the largest cannery in Astoria. It remained a fishermen-owned business until the late 1940s."

Source:    "CanneryPierHotel.com" website, 2012

Penny Postcard, Astoria Cannery, ca.1920, click to enlarge
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Penny Postcard: Astoria Salmon Cannery, ca.1920. Penny Postcard, ca.1920, "Salmon Cannery, Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon." Published by Wesley Andrews Co., Baker, Oregon. Card #505. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2012, Columbia Pier Hotel, Astoria, click to enlarge
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Cannery Pier Hotel, Astoria, Oregon, with the Astoria-Megler Bridge in the background. Photographed from moving car. Image taken January 27, 2012.


Columbia River Maritime Museum ...
The Columbia River Maritime Museum was founded in 1962 by Rolf Klep, a native of Astoria who retired back to his home town. Kelp was a long-time collector of marine treasures, and with a group of his collegues wanted to establish a museum to preserve the maritime heritage of the Columbia River region. The Columbia River Maritime Museum is the result. The museum is located along Astoria's historic waterfront and displays one of the most extensive collections of nautical artifacts on the west coast. It is 44,200 square feet of exhibit space, was designated Oregon's official state maritime museum, and was the first nationally accredited maritime museum in the western United States. It is the home of the "Lightship Columbia".

Image, 2012, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Maritime Museam, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 1, 2012.
Image, 2012, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Maritime Museam, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 1, 2012.
Image, 2009, Columbia River Maritime Museum, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 18, 2009.
Image, 2009, Columbia River Maritime Museum, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Maritime Museum, with Lightship Columbia, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 18, 2009.


Columbia River Packers Association (CRPA) ...
[More]

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Packer's Association, Pier 39, Astoria, Oregon. The Hanthorn Cannery and BumbleBee use to be at this location. Image taken July 30, 2013.


Columbia River Viewing Tower ...
In 1876 (some sources say 1879) the Kinney Cannery was built between 5th and 6th Street in Astoria. This was the third cannery built in Astoria and the first to be built in the downtown area. By 1891 the Kinney Cannery was the largest salmon packing plant in Astoria. In 1894 the cannery burned to the ground but was rebuilt on its original pilings. Canning was discontinued around 1920 and the building served as a central machine shop and warehouse for the Columbia River Packers Association (later called Bumble Bee) until 1980. In 1989 the Kinney Cannery (Marshall J. Kinney Cannery) was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Architecture/Engineering, Event, #89000515). It was removed from the Register in 1997. The area was developed with small local shops known as the No.10 Sixth Street Building and an observation tower viewing the Columbia was built. In December 2010 a fire destroyed the complex including the Gunderson Cannery Cafe across the street, and 27 small businesses lost everything. The viewing tower remains.

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia River Viewing Tower, Astoria, Oregon. The Kinney Cannery use to be at this location. Image taken September 4, 2013.


Coxcomb Hill ...
Coxcomb Hill rises above Astoria and is the home to the Astoria Column and the Chief Comcomly Burial Canoe replica. Good views of the Astoria area can be had from Coxcomb Hill.
[More]

Image, 2004, Coxcomb Hill from Youngs Bay, click to enlarge
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Coxcomb Hill and the Astoria Column, Astoria, Oregon, as seen from across Youngs Bay. Image taken May 25, 2004.


1852 Customhouse ...
The "1852 Customhouse" is located on the south side of Marine Drive and 33rd Street. It is a replica of General John Adair's original custom's service office, the oldest customs house west of the Rockies. In 1849 Adair arrived in Astoria with his commission of Customs Collector, the first on the West Coast. The replica Customhouse was built in 1991 as a memorial celebrating the bi-centennial of the Custom Service.

Image, 2009, Astoria Customhouse, click to enlarge
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1852 Customhouse, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken August 8, 2009.


Elmore Cannery ...
In 1875 Samuel Elmore came west and became an agent for Robert Hume in San Francisco, where he marketed canned salmon overseas. In 1878 Elmore partnered with Joseph Hume in a cannery in Astoria, and in 1881 Elmore bought out Hume. In 1886 Samuel Elmore constructed a cannery, the building which was later used for storage and a local Sunday school for the West Astoria Methodist Episcopal Church. The building was destroyed by fire in 1931.

In 1898 Samuel Elmore began construction on a new wharf and new cannery building at the foot of Flavel Street. In 1937 when Albacore Tuna was discovered in abundance off the coast of Oregon, the Elmore cannery expanded, with new additions being built to cover the handling of the tuna. The four-acre complex became home to the "Bumble Bee" label until the complex closed in 1980. Between 1966 and 1993 the property was listed as a U.S. National Landmark as the longest continuously-operated salmon cannery in the United States. The buildings burned in 1993.

In 1966 the Samuel Elmore Cannery was designated as a National Historic Landmark as the longest continuously-operated salmon cannery in the United States. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places (#66000638). When the cannery closed in 1980 the owner and the City of Astoria sought to find a new use for the complex and to encourage its preservation. The cannery was in poor shape however. In 1990, the northwest corner of the building and its support pilings collapsed and in 1991 the buildings were slated for demolition. As the owner was dismantling the cannery as part of the demolition, it was destroyed by fire on January 26, 1993. The Landmark designation was withdrawn in 1993 and the property was removed from the National Register of Historic Places.

Today warehouses sit at the location of the former Elmore Cannery.



Ferry Landing (14th Street Pilot Station) ...
The Pier 14 Pilot Station is the home of the Columbia River Pilots, tug and pilot boats which have guided ships on the Columbia for over 150 years. This location was once the home of the North Shore Ferry system where the ferry to Washington was based before the Astoria - Megler Bridge was built in the 60s. The very day the bridge opened the ferry closed. Today, this dock is home to tug and pilot boats.
[More]

"14th Street was the site of the George Hume cannery. It is another small riverfront park with interpretive displays to explain its history. This is where the ferry to Washington was based before the bridge was built in the 60s. The very day they opened the bridge, they closed the ferry. The ferry followed a deep north-south channel in the river, which filled in with ash when Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980. Today, this dock is home to tug and pilot boats. Part of the movie “Free Willy” was filmed here."

Source:    "old300.org" website, 2013, "Astoria's history along the tracks"

Image, 2011, 14th Street Pilot Station, click to enlarge
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14th Street Pilot Station and the old ferry landing, Astoria, Oregon. View from moving car. Image taken October 25, 2011.


Fort Astoria ...
Fort Astoria Park is located at the intersection of 15th and Exchange streets, Astoria, Oregon. In 1956 a re-creation of the blockhouse of the old Fort Astoria was built and a sign telling the history was erected nearby. Fort Astoria was added to the National Register of Historical Places in 1966 (Site #66000639).
[More]

Image, 2009, Fort Astoria, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fort Astoria replica, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken August 8, 2009.


Hanthorn Cannery ...
In 1877 the J.O. Hanthorn Cannery (Hanthorn & Co.) was built at the foot of 39th Street in Astoria. In 1899 this early cannery joined the Columbia River Packer's Association. It was then used as a cold storage plant.

Image, 2013, CRPA buildings, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River Packer's Association - original Hanthorn Cannery buildings, 39th Street, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken July 30, 2013.


Josephson's Smokehouse ...
According to the Josephson's Smokehouse website (2013), Josephson's is a fourth-generation family-owned business and has been in operation for over 90 years.

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Josephson's Smokehouse, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken September 4, 2013.


Kinney Cannery ...
In 1876 (some sources say 1879) the Kinney Cannery was built between 5th and 6th Street in Astoria. This was the third cannery built in Astoria and the first to be built in the downtown area. By 1891 the Kinney Cannery was the largest salmon packing plant in Astoria. In 1894 the cannery burned to the ground but was rebuilt on its original pilings. Canning was discontinued around 1920 and the building served as a central machine shop and warehouse for the Columbia River Packers Association (later called Bumble Bee) until 1980. In 1989 the Kinney Cannery (Marshall J. Kinney Cannery) was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Architecture/Engineering, Event, #89000515). It was removed from the Register in 1997. The area was developed with small local shops known as the No.10 Sixth Street Building and an observation tower viewing the Columbia was built. In December 2010 a fire destroyed the complex including the Gunderson Cannery Cafe across the street, and 27 small businesses lost everything. The viewing tower remains (see above).


Liberty Theatre ...
The restored Liberty Theatre, also known as the "Astor Building" is one of the Pacific Northwest's best examples of a 1920s vaudeville-motion picture palace. The theater was built in 1925, and designed in the Italian Renaissance style by architects John V. Bennes and Harry A. Herzog. The theater featured small vaudeville acts, silent films, and a Wurlitzer organ. A "Grand Re-Opening" celebration was held in April 2009. The Liberty Theatre was added to the National Register of Historical Places in 1984 (Building #84002938).

Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Liberty Theatre, Astoria, Oregon, street scene. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.
Image, 2009, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Liberty Theatre, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 18, 2009.
Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Liberty Theatre, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken September 4, 2013.


Lightship Columbia ...
The Columbia River Maritime Museum is home of the last lightship serving the Pacific Coast, the "Lightship Columbia". Officially known as "WAL-604" (later "WLV-604"), the 128-foot welded-steel lightship was built in 1950 for the U.S. Coast Guard, and was stationed at the mouth of the Columbia River between 1951 and 1979. The WLV-604 was the fourth "Lightship Columbia". The "Lightship Columbia" can be seen at the docks of Astoria's Columbia River Maritime Museum, with views of Tongue Point upstream, and the Astoria-Megler Bridge downstream. In 1989 the "Lightship Columbia" was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark #89002463.
[More]

Image, 2004, Lightship Columbia, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Lightship Columbia, Astoria, Oregon. View from the Columbia River Maritime Museum. This lightship was the last lightship on the Pacific Coast, until replaced by a bouy, similar to the one on the left. Tongue Point is in the background, right. Image taken June 16, 2004.


Maritime Memorial ...
The Maritime Memorial is dedicated to the memories of local residents who were involved in the maritime trade, including those members of the U.S. Coast Guard who lost their lives while serving on the Columbia River.

Image, 2004, Astoria Maritime Memorial, click to enlarge
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Maritime Memorial, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken June 16, 2004.


Murals ...
Many murals cover the walls of buildings around Astoria.
[More]

Image, 2012, Astoria mural, click to enlarge
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Mural, "Butterfly Fleet", Astoria, Oregon. Wauna Federal Credit Union Building. Taken from window of moving car. Image taken July 31, 2012.
Image, 2009, Fort Astoria, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mural, Fort Astoria replica, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken August 8, 2009.
Image, 2012, Astoria mural, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mural, Lower Columbia Bowl, Astoria, Oregon. Located on the corner of 8th and Marine Drive. Taken from window of moving car. Image taken July 31, 2012.


Pilot Boat Peacock ...
The Pilot Boat Peacock was custom-built in Germany for the Columbia River Bar Pilots in 1964 and was delivered in 1967. She is 90 feet long, 33 feet tall, and is self-righting. The Peacock's maximum speed was 26 miles per hour, she carried a crew of three and up to 12 bar pilots. During her 30-plus-year career, the Peacock crossed the Columbia River Bar, the most dangerous river bar in the world, more than 35,000 times. The boat was decommissioned in 1999 and given to the Columbia River Maritime Museum for preservation and display.

Image, 2012, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Pilot Boat Peacock, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 1, 2012.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Pilot Boat Peacock, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 25, 2011.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Pilot Boat Peacock, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 25, 2011.


Riverfront Trolley, "Old 300" ...
According to "Old300.org" website (2013), Astoria's "Old 300" trolley car was built in 1913 by the American Car Company, for use in San Antonio, Texas. The trolley's body was constructed from both wood and steel. When street car service ended in San Antonia in 1933, car 300 was presented to the Witte Museum, San Antonio, and put on display outside until 1948 when it was placed under shelter. The trolley was again placed outside in 1968 where it again remained unprotected until 1980 when the first of the trolley's restorations began. While "Old 300" is still the property of the San Antonio Museum Association, the car has been operating in the Pacific Northwest for over 25 years. It has been running the riverfront tracks in Astoria since 1998.

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Historic 1913 Riverfront Trolley, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken September 4, 2013.


Safeway Store location ... site of first cannery ...
The Safeway Store on the corner of 33rd and Marine Drive is the site of the first cannery in Astoria. This cannery was incorporated in 1873 and built in January 1874. By 1875 there were 17 salmon canneries in operation in the vicinity of Astoria on both sides of the river. Between 1890 and 2002 this location was the Sentry Market, once the oldest family-owned grocery store west of the Rockies.

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Safeway store, once a cannery location, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken February 2, 2013.


Smith Point ...
Smith Point is the western tip of Astoria and the upstream tip of Youngs Bay. It has had many names throughout history, including "Meriwethers Point", "Point George", "George Point", "Young's Point", and "Smith's Point".
[More]

Image, 2005, Astoria and Youngs Bay, from mouth of the Lewis and Clark River, click to enlarge
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Astoria, Smith Point, and Youngs Bay, from mouth of the Lewis and Clark River. Image taken November 15, 2005.
Image, 2005, Astoria, Oregon, from Coxcomb Hill, click to enlarge
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Smith Point and Astoria, Oregon, from the Astoria Column on Coxcomb Hill. Looking west at the mouth of the Columbia River, from Coxcomb Hill, location of the Astoria Column. Youngs Bay is to the left and the Astoria-Megler Bridge is to the right. Smith Point is the westerly tip of Astoria. Point Adams can be seen in the upper distance. Image taken April 19, 2005.


Union Fisherman's Packing Company ...
[More]

Image, 2005, Net loft, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Union Fisherman's Packing Company Net loft, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2005.


Union Fisherman's Packing Company, Alderbrook Station ...
The Union Fishermen's Cooperative Packing Company's Alderbrook Station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991 (Structure #91000053).
[More]

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Alderbrook Station, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken July 30, 2013.
Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Alderbrook Station, Astoria, Oregon. Image taken July 30, 2013.


Uppertown Firefighter's Museum (Astoria Fire House No.2) ...
The building of the Uppertown Firefighter's Museum was originally a brewery for the North Pacific Brewery. It was constructed in 1896. In 1928 the building was converted to the Uppertown Fire House No.2. The brick structure was designed by architect Emil Schacht and originally had a tower. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 (Architecture/Engineering #84002946) as Astoria Fire House No.2, also known as North Pacific Brewing Company Beer Storage Building.

"An extensive collection of firefighting equipment and memorabilia from Clatsop County dating back to 1877 are on view at the Uppertown Firefighter's Museum. On exhibit are a horsedrawn ladder wagon, hose carts, a 1912 American LaFrance fire truck, a Stutz fire engine, and a 1946 Mack fire truck.

The collection is housed in a historic red brick building which was originally constructed in 1896 as part of the popular North Pacific Brewery which closed its doors in 1915 due to prohibition. In 1928, the City of Astoria renovated the building for use as the Uppertown Fire Station #2. The station was decommissioned by the City in 1960 and used for equiptment storage until 1989 when the Uppertown Firefighters Museum opened."

Source:   Clatsop County Historical Society website, 2011.


Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Uppertown Firefighter's Museum, Astoria, Oregon. View from the west. Photographed from moving car. Image taken September 4, 2013.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Uppertown Firefighter's Museum. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 25, 2011.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Uppertown Firefighter's Museum. Photographed from moving car. Image taken October 25, 2011.


Whispering Giant Scupture "Ikala Nawan" ...
According to the "wikipedia.org" website (November 2013), Hungarian-born scuptor Peter Wolf Toth has created 74 large wood sculptures ranging in height from 20 to 40 feet, with at least one each in each of the 50 States, as well as Ontario and Manitoba, Canada. This collection is known as the "Trail of the Whispering Giants". Oregon has two "Whispering Giants". One, "Ikala Nawan" ("Man Who Fishes"), is located in Astoria, Oregon and was Toth's 57th Giant. It was carved in 1987 out of cedar log and placed on a concrete base. The painted head is approximately 18 feet high and 9 feet in diameter. The base is approximately 5 feet high and 15 feet in diameter. The sculpture is to honor the Chinook, Clatsop, and all Northwestern Coastal Indians.
[More]

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Whispering Giant scupture, "Ikala Nawan", Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken August 13, 2013.


MORE Street scenes ...

Image, 2013, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Steet scene, colorful chairs, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken February 2, 2013.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Steet scene, Astoria, Oregon. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Astoria, Oregon, street scene. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.
Image, 2011, Astoria, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Astoria, Oregon, street scene. Photographed from moving car. Image taken May 1, 2011.


"The Golden Age of Postcards" ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards", with the "Penny Postcard" being a popular way to send greetings to family and friends. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Astoria ...

Penny Postcard, Astoria, Oregon, with Salmon Canneries, ca.1917, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Astoria, Oregon, with Salmon Canneries, ca.1917. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1917, "Waterfront of Astoria, Oregon, showing some of the Salmon Canneries.". Published by Louis Scheiner, Portland, Oregon. Card is postmarked June 12, 1917. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Astoria, Tongue Point, and Train, ca.1910, click to enlarge
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Penny Postcard: Astoria, Tongue Point, and Train, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "The Train runs for several miles over trestle bridges as it approaches Astoria, Oregon." Published by Pacific Novelty Co. of San Francisco, California. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Astoria Cannery, ca.1920, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Astoria Salmon Cannery, ca.1920. Penny Postcard, ca.1920, "Salmon Cannery, Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon." Published by Wesley Andrews Co., Baker, Oregon. Card #505. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Astoria Fishermen, ca.1909, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Astoria Fishermen, ca.1909. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1909, "Fishermen's Homes, Astoria, Ore." Published by M.R.L.A., #9265. Made in Germany. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Salmon waiting for Shipment, ca.1910, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Columbia River Salmon waiting for Shipment, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Columbia River Salmon waiting for Shipment." Published by M. Rieder, Los Angeles, California. Card #3950. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Interior, Salmon Cannery, ca.1930, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Interior, Salmon Cannery, ca.1930. Penny Postcard, ca.1930, "Interior Salmon Cannery, Daily Capacity 60 Tons, Columbia River." Published by Wesley Andrews Co., Portland, Oregon. Card #799. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


Fishing ...

Penny Postcard, Columbia River Fishing Fleet, ca.1907, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Columbia River Fishing Fleet, ca.1907. Penny Postcard, Postmarked 1907, "Columbia River Fishing Fleet.". These small gillnet fishing boats were powered by two triangular sails, giving rise to the name "Butterfly Fleet". Published by Edward H. Mitchell, San Francisco, California. Card #511. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


Lumber ...

Penny Postcard, Hammond Lumber Mills, Astoria, ca.1910, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Hammond Lumber Mills, Astoria, Oregon, ca.1910. Penny Postcard, ca.1910, "Hammond Lumber Mills, showins millions of feet of floating lumber, Astoria, Oregon." Published by Pacific Novelty Co., San Francisco, California. Card #3313. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


Fort Astoria ...

Penny Postcard, Fort Astoria, ca.1960s, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Fort Astoria, ca.1960s. Penny Postcard, ca.1960s, "Fort Astoria, Astoria, Oregon". Caption on back reads: "This famous fort was restored in 1956. A "must" for the visitor to this area." Image by Henry Lonberg. Distributed and Published by Smith's Scenic Views, Tacoma, Washington. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.

"FORT ASTORIA Desiring to dominate the areas explored by Lewis and Clark, John Jacob Astor sent expeditions overland and by sea to seize the mouth of the Columbia. The schooner Tonquin arrived first and work was begun at this site April 12, 1811. 'The foliage was budding. We imagined ourselves in the garden of Eden. Buildings were of boards tightly covered and roofed with cedar bark.' Later palisades were raised against the Indians. Here gathered adventurers from all the vast wilderness. Here, in 1814, lived the Oregon country's first white woman, the English barmaid, Jane Barnes. Here were the true beginnings of our stock raising, farming, and shipbuilding. The property was sold to the North West Company to avoid capture during the War of 1812 and was operated as 'Fort George' until its abandonment in 1825 when the Hudson's Bay Company moved headquarters to Fort Vancouver. The buildings decayed and modern Astoria rose upon the site."



Astoria-Megler Ferry ...

Penny Postcard, Astoria-Megler Ferry, Tourist No.2
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Astoria-Megler Ferry, Tourist No.2.
Penny Postcard, "Astoria-Megler Ferry". Caption on back reads: "Tourist No.2, Astoria, Oregon-Megler, Washington Ferry. This ferry connects Pacific Coast Highway 101 across the mouth of the Columbia River. The 10 mile trip takes approximately 30 minutes." Published by Anderson Sundry Co., Portland, Oregon. Color by Mel Anderson. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, December 7, 1805, first draft ...
Some rain from 10 to 12 last night this morning fair, we Set out at 8 oClock down to the place Capt Lewis pitched on for winter quarters [Fort Clatsop], when he was down proceeded on against the tide at the point No. 2 we met our men Sent down after meet

To point Adams [Point Adams] is West

To pt. Disapointment [Cape Disappointment] N 75 W

They informed me that they found the Elk after being lost in the woods for one Day and part of another, the most of the meat was Spoiled, they distance was So great and uncertain and the way bad, they brought only the Skins, york was left behind by Some accident which detained us Some time eer he Came up after passing round the pt. No. 2 in verry high swells, we Stopd & Dined in the commencement of a bay, [Youngs Bay] after which proceeded on around the bay to S E. & assended a Creek [Lewis and Clark River] 8 miles to a high pt. & Camped [near Fort Clatsop] haveing passed arm [Youngs River] makeing up to our left into the countrey

Mt. St. Helens [Mount St. Helens] is the mountain we mistook for Mt. Reeaneer [Mount Rainier, Clark mis-identified the peak on November 25, 1805, as viewed "from the mouth of this river"] ...



receved 2 Small Brooks on the East [Youngs River and the Lewis and Clark River], extencive marshes at this place of Encampment [Fort Clatsop] We propose to build & pass the winter, The situation is in the Center of as we conceve a hunting Countrey— This day is fair except about 12 oClock at which time Some rain and a hard wind imedeately after we passed the point [Smith Point, location of Astoria, Oregon] from the N. E which Continued for a about 2 hours and Cleared up. no meat ...


Clark, December 7, 1805 ...
Some rain from 10 to 12 last night, this morning fair, have every thing put on board the Canoes and Set out to the place Capt Lewis had viewed and thought well Situated for winter quarters [Fort Clatsop] - we proceeded on against the tide to a point [Smith Point, Astoria] about [blank] miles here we met Sergt Pryor and his party returning to the Camp we had left without any meat, the waves verry verry high, as much as our Canoes Could bear rendered it impossible to land for the party, we proceeded on around the point [Smith Point, Astoria] into the bay [Youngs Bay] and landed to take brackfast on 2 Deer which had been killed & hung up, one of which we found the other had been taken off by [s]ome wild animal probably Panthors or the Wild [cat?] of this Countrey ... I delayed about half an hour before York Came up, and then proceeded around this Bay which I have taken the liberty of calling Meriwethers Bay [Youngs Bay] the Cristian name of Capt. Lewis who no doubt was the 1st white man who ever Surveyed this Bay, we assended a river [Lewis and Clark River] which falls in on the South Side of this Bay [Youngs Bay] 3 miles to the first point of high land on the West Side, the place Capt. Lewis had viewed and formed in a thick groth of pine about 200 yards from the river [Fort Clatsop], this situation is on a rise about 30 feet higher than the high tides leavel and thickly Covered with lofty pine. this is certainly the most eligable Situation for our purposes of any in its neighbourhood.

Meriwethers Bay [Youngs Bay] is about 4 miles across deep & receves 2 rivers the Kil how-â-nah-kle [Youngs River] and the Ne tul [Lewis and Clark River] and Several Small Creeks - we had a hard wind from the N. E. and Some rain about 12 oClock to day which lasted 2 hours and Cleared away. From the Point above Meriwethers Bay [Smith Point, Astoria, above Youngs Bay] to Point Adams [Point Adams, Oregon] is West

to point Disapointment [Cape Disappointment] is N. 75° W."



Ordway, December 7, 1805 ...
the morning clear we put our canoes in the water loaded up and set out and proceeded on down the River. the Shore is covred thick with pine and under brush. passd. Several Spring runs. the waves ran verry high. we could not land untill we turned a point [Smith Point, location of Astoria, Oregon] in a bay [Youngs Bay] where we halted and cooked a young Deer which the hunters had killed the other day. ...     we proceed. on round a bay [Youngs Bay] then went up a River [Lewis and Clark River] abt. 3 miles and landed at the place appointed for winters quarters [Fort Clatsop]. this River [Lewis and Clark River] is about 100 yds wide at this place but the tide water extends further up. we unloaded the canoes and carried all our baggage about 2 hundred yards on a rise of ground and thicket of handsom tall Strait pine and balsom fir timber and Camped here we intend to build a fort and Stay if game is to be found thro. this winter Season.-


Whitehouse, December 7, 1805 ...
This morning clear & cold, We put our Canoes into the River & loaded them. We set off to go to the place appointed for our Winter Quarters [Fort Clatsop] & proceeded down along the Coast. We passed a number of fine Springs or Spring runs, which came in along the Shore. The Country was covered with pine Trees & under brush.- The wind rose, & the wind caused the Waves to rise also. We saw our 6 Men, who had been for the Elk meat, on the Shore. The Waves ran so high, that we could not land where they were, and had to turn a point of land [Smith Point, Astoria, Oregon], to make a harbour; the 6 Men joined us at this place. ...     We set off, the Waves running very high.- Captain Clarks negroe Man servant, not having come up, with the Men whom he had went out with, he waited with his Canoe for him. We proceeded on to a deep bay [Youngs Bay] about 8 Miles, & went up <the> a River, [Lewis and Clark River] which was about 100 yards wide. We then unloaded our Canoes & carried all our baggage, about 200 yards to piece a rising ground in a thicket of tall pine Trees; where we intend building Cabbins, & stay if Game is to be had through the Winter season





Clark, March 23, 1806 ...
This morning proved So raney and uncertain that we were undeturmined for Some time whether we had best Set out & risque the [river?] which appeared to be riseing or not. ...     at 1 P. M. left Fort Clatsop [Fort Clatsop, Oregon, location where the men wintered over] on our homeward bound journey. at this place we had wintered and remained from the 7th of Decr. 1805 to this day and have lived as well as we had any right to expect, and we can Say that we were never one day without 3 meals of Some kind a day either pore Elk meat or roots, not withstanding the repeeted fall of rain which has fallen almost Constantly Since we passed the long narrows on the [blank] of Novr. last indeed w[e] have had only [blank] days fair weather since that time. Soon after we had Set out from Fort Clatsop we were met by De lash el wilt & 8 men of the Chinnooks ...     proceeded on, thro' Meriwethers Bay [Youngs Bay], there was a Stiff breese from the S. W. which raised Considerable Swells around Meriwethers point [Smith Point, Astoria, Oregon] which was as much as our Canoes Could ride. above point William [Tongue Point] we came too at the Camp of Drewyer & the 2 Field's. they had killed 2 Elk which was about 1½ miles distant. here we Encampd. for the night [near Mill Creek, just downstream of the John Day River] having made 16 miles.



Ordway, March 23, 1806 ...
the one hunter stayed out last night rained hard the greater part of last night.     this morning proved so rainy and uncertain that our officers were undetermined for Some time whether they had best Set out & risque the [wind?] which appeared to be riseing or not. ... at 1 P. M. left Fort Clatsop [Fort Clatsop, Oregon, where the men spent the winter] on our homeward bound journey. at this place we had wintered and remained from the 7th of Decr. 1805 to this day, and have lived as well as we had any right to expect, and we can Say that we were never one day without 3 meals of Some kind a day, either poor Elk meat or roots, notwithstanding the reputed fall of rain which has fallen almost continualy Since we passed the long narrows on the [blank] of Novr last, indeed we have had only [blank] days fair weather Since that time. Soon after we had set out from fort Clatsop we were met by a party of the Chinooks ...     proceeded on thro Meriwethers Bay [Youngs Bay]. their was a stiff breeze from the S. W. which raised considerable Swells around Merewethers Point [today the location of Astoria, Oregon], which was as much as our canoes could ride above point william [Tongue Point] we came too at the Camp of G. Drewyer & the 2 Fields they had killed 2 Elk which was about 1½ mile distant. here we Encamped for the night, having made 16 miles.


Whitehouse, March 23, 1806 ...
At 1 o'Clock P. M. we embarked, on board our Canoes from Fort Clatsop [Fort Clatsop on the Lewis and Clark River, the winter home of Lewis and Clark], on our homeward bound Voyage. We proceeded on up the South side of the Columbia River, when we were met by a party of the Chinnock tribe of Indians, who belong to the Flatt head nation. ... We then continued on our Voyage, and went round a point of land called by our officers Merryweather point (the Sirname of Captain Lewis) [today the location of Astoria, Oregon] when the wind rose & blew hard from the South West, & the waves ran very high. We proceeded on, & passed another point of land called point William [Tongue Point] by our officers the Sirname of Captain Clark. We halted a short distance above this last point, at a Camp where the two hunters that were sent on ahead of us were. These two hunters had killed 2 Elk, which they informed us lay 1½ Miles from this place. We encamped at that place having come 16 Miles this day.




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources for Astoria and Fort Astoria:    Astoria Visual Arts website, 2006;   "Astoria-USA.com" website, 2009;   Astoria-Warrenton Chamber of Commerce website, 2004;    "CanneryPierHotel.com" webbsite, 2012;   City of Astoria, 2006, "Astoria's Historic Resources and Heritage";   Clatsop County Historical Society website, 2004, 2011, 2012;    Columbia River Maritime Museum website, 2004, 2011;   Hines, Rev. Gustavus, 1852, Live of the Plains of the Pacific. OREGON: its History, Condition and Prospects: etc., published in Buffalo: Geo. H. Derby and Company, published in Chicago: Hewson & Denison;    "josephsons.com" webiste, 2013;    "Liberty-Theater.org" website, 2009;   Mountain Men and the Fur Trade website, 2005, 2006, 2007;   National Register of Historic Places website, 2004, 2005;   NOAA Office of Coast Survey website, 2005;   "old300.org" website, 2012, 2013, Astoria's Old 300 Riverfront Trolly;   Oregon Historical Society website, 2006, "Oregon History Project";   Oregon State Archives website, 2005;   Oregon State Department of Transportation website, 2004;   Ross, A., 1849, Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River;   Smithsonian American Art Museum, Art Inventories Catalog, 2013;   The Spokesman-Review, November 22, 1895, found on "news.google.com" newspaper archive;   U.S. Coast Guard website, 2004;   U.S. National Park Service website, 2004, "Marine Heritage Program";   Washington State University website, 2005, "Early Washington Maps: A Digital Collection".  

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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Images are NOT to be downloaded from this website.
December 2013